The silk dyeing effluents waste is one of the most potential harmful chemical liberated in the environment in an unexpected manner, associated with several reproductive, hepatic and renal problems that damages both functionally and structurally. The present study was undertaken to investigate of the toxic effects of the silk dye waste on kidneys of swiss albino mice, (Mus musculus). Five set of experimental animals including control (mice) were treated orally intragastrically and effects was observed at different concentration of silk dye effluent waste i.e. 25% 50 % 75 % and 100% in different time response (15th, 30th, 45th and 60th days). The assimilation of dyeing effluent in body system was supported by biochemical variables. The kidney section showed progressive damage which increased with the duration of exposure period than increase in effluent concentration. Renal histopathological study revealed that experimental mice suffer from severe renal injury. Microscopic histopathological examination of haematoxylin-eosin stained kidney section showed chronic toxicological changes. Some changes includes glomerular degeneration, tubular collapse, haemorrhage, hydropic changes, glomerular shrinkage, infiltration and compressed blood vessel. The findings indicated that silk dye effluent because a marked alteration in renal profile and their effect became more risky at higher dose. The present investigation may be a valuable step in the toxicity assessment of silk dye effluent in swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).
Studies on daily food intake, energy value of ration, total faecal discharge, energy value of faeces and excretory product (U) have been made in different weight groups of an air breathing catfish, Mystus cavasius (Ham.). The above parameters ranged from 0.58-7.14 glfish/day, 2192.4 – 26989.2 joules, 0.0710.791 g/day/dry wt, 269.66 to 3670.53 joules and 152.07-1889.24 joules respectively within the weight range 12.2 to 102.0g. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Textile silk dyeing waste is one of the major sources of hazardous pollutants. Untreated textile dye effluents released from various dyeing industries are often associated with several hepatic diseases and damages both functionally and structurally. In the present work an attempt has been made to find out the impacts of long term exposure of untreated silk dye effluent of small scale cottage industry at Bhagalpur on hepatic tissues of Swiss albino mice, (Mus musculus). The mice were treated orally intragastrically and toxicity was observed at different concentration of silk dye effluent i.e. 25%, 50 %, 75 % and 100% in different time response (15m, 30m, 45th and 60th days). The assimilation of dyeing effluent in body system was supported by biochemical variables. The liver section showed progressive damage which increased with the duration of exposure period than increase in effluent concentration. Hepatic histo-pathological study revealed that female mice suffer from severe hepatic injury like hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, granulation and dense particles. Hyalinisation was major character identified in the peripheral region of hepatocytes. The findings indicated that silk dye effluent cause a marked alteration in hepatic profile and their effect became more risky at higher dose, because it induces retention of water inside hepatocytes result in odema. The present investigation may be a valuable step in the toxicity assessment of silk dye effluent in Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).
Rhesus macaques are exceptionally adapted to coexisting with human and thrive near human settlement in both urban and agricultural areas. There are numerous populations of non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) living in and around the Raj-Gardh fort Dumraon, Buxar but none have been documented. A survey of Raj-Gardh Garrison monkey M. mulatta was carried out and studied its ecology and behavior during January 2013 to December 2014 in Dumraon. Macaque position in the group was observed based on the rank and “central male subgroup” together with two or three oldest males that was observed most dominant. Troop also co-dominant, along with females, their infants and juveniles. The home ranges of this species M. mulatta were observed between .01 to 2.5 km2 in day. Feeding activity was found mostly during morning & evening time and resting between 10 AM to 3 PM when temperature was high. M. mulatta is sexually dimorphic with males and females both have represented separate hierarchies. The rhesus groups were characterized by female philopartry with residue natal group but male dispersal. Mating observed mostly in the month of November to January and infants handled by close female relatives and protected by adult males. In the first few days the infant was carried ventrally by the mother. Loss of natural habitat and increased conflict between human and non-human primates were found to be the major threat for the Raj-Gardh Macaques of the region.
The changes of reproductive cycle in higher vertebrate mammalian rodent give a reasonable index of its ovarian activity with hormonal synthesis of estrogens and progesterone. In the present work an attempt has been made to study the assessment of different concentration of silk dye effluent on reproductive physiology of female Albino mice, Mus musculus. The reproductive toxicity was observed in 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations. The silk dye effluent cause significant effect on estrous cycle, copora lutea, implantation site, gestation length, litter count, percent survival of litter count and percent pre Implamentational loss. The control mice exhibited regular estrous cycle of 4-5 days. All the parameters except estrus cycle and gestation length reduced with increase in effluent concentration. When female mice treated with different concentration cause a significant decrease in the number of estrus cycle. The numbers of corpora lutea were significantly reduced from 14-5, implementation site 11-2, litter count 11-1.2 and percent survival of litter count from 95.605% to 32.166 % while the percent pre implantational loss were increased from 10 to 36.744 and gestation lengths increased with the increase in effluent concentration from 19.8 – 21.1 days. The finding indicated that the reproductive fertility and ability severely affected due to the different concentrations of silk dye effluent. The detail report of the investigation is presented in this paper.