In the brain of pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, Locus-3 has lateral neurosecretory cells which are observed in two groups, each of 2-4 cells arranged symmetrically on either side of locus-3. The axons of lateral neurosecretory cells (LNSC) form the lateral neurosecretory pathway and nervi corporis cardiaci externi (NCC II). The axons of LNSC run directly and do no decussate in the brain and come out independently through the ventral surface of protocerebrum as short paired NCC II. The NCC II of each side innervates the corpus cardiacum of its same side in the female Spilostethus pandurus.
The lateral neurosecretory cells (LNSC) of pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus are observed in two groups, each of 2-4 cells and are arranged symmetrically on either side of Locus 3. The neurosecretory material of LNSC are stained light purple with PF and red with CHP. The neurosecretory product of LNSC are present in very poor amount in pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, a heteropteran bug of economic importance.
The axons of median nerosecretory cells of locus 1 form the median neurosectory pathway and nervi corporis cardiaci interni (NCCI). The NCCI of two sides decussate each other in the anterior dorsal median part of the protocerebrum, comes out from the brain and enter the aorta wall. The median neurosecretory pathways can be differentiated into two parts viz. the very short prechiasmatic and the long postchiasmatic portions in pre – copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, a heteropteran insect of economic importance.
Studies on seasonal variations in aquatic, aerial and total oxygen uptake in a fresh water facultative air breathig fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn. ) were made for a period of twelve months. In this fish aquatic, aerial and total 0, uptake ranged respectively between 4 1. 8-61. 2; 6. 2-30. 8 and 49. 0-91. 0 cc/kg/h. The percent 0, uptake through aerial route were lowest (12.157%) in January and highest (33.846%) in June. The aquatic/aerial ratio was lowest (1.945) in June and highest (7.226) in January. The reason for such variations have been discussed in this paper.
The present paper deals with the effect of certain pesticides (namely Dithane M-45 and Metacid 50) on aquatic, aerial and total oxygen consumption besides equivalent energy utilization (E. E. U.) in a fresh water facultative air breathing siluroid fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn. ). The exposure of fishes to both the pesticides at different concentrations caused significant decrease in total oxygen uptake but on the otherhand significant increase in O, uptake through aerial route was noticed. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.