Climatic changes are occurring all over the world, especially developing countries. Frequency and Intensity of disasters are increasing because of such changes. Uttarakhand state of India, which lies in the hilly regions of Himalayas, has seen many climatic natural disasters in the recent past. The region is prone to and very sensitive to occurrence of natural disasters, as it lies in ecologically fragile and geologically sensitive area. The glacial disaster which occurred in February 2021, has caused loss of lives of people, besides damaging under construction mini hydel projects, due to flash floods. Construction activities due to 816 km char Dham highway in the state is playing havoc with the ecosystem there. Suitable actions need to be taken at the earliest to prevent such type of disasters in the future.
The present study was conducted in a pond of Saharsa district of Bihar during April 2018 to June 2019. The physico-chemical and the biological parameters were analyzed by using standard methods. The parameters considered were Colour, Odour, Temperature, pH, Turbidity, EC, TDS, TA, TH, Mg2+ hardness, Ca2+ hardness, Nitrate,Phosphate, DO, BOD and Chloride.
During the study the colour and the odour of the water bodies were recorded as normal one. Temperature was 320C- 10°C . the pH was recorded 6.9-8.6 during the study period. Turbidity found 20 NTU -1.2 NTU. The EC was high in the winter and low during the summer. TDS recorded high at site 1 and site 2 during monsoon season. At some site TDS values recorded high 1445 mg/I during the summer also. The minimum TDS was recorded as 342.4 mg/I at site 1 during the winter. Total Alkalinity was recorded high (360 mg/I) during winter at site 4 and minimum was recorded during monsoon at site 2. Dissolved Oxygen recorded maximum 12.47 at site 2 and the minimum 0 at site 4. There was sewage water and other effluents released into the pond t site 4, which may be one of the reason forgetting zero value of DO.
BOD also recorded high at site 4. Among biological parameters phytoplankton and zooplankton were counted by using Sedwitch rafter chamber. The total count per ml and per liter was calculated for all the four sites. There are total 33 plankton species per ml were recorded. Out of this 27 were phytoplankton while rest zooplankton species. Among phytoplankton Chlorophyceae were more abundant during monsoon season while Bascillariophyceae were recorded maximum during the summer and winter season. Plankton (both phytoplankton and zooplankton) shows correlation either positive or negative with physico-chemical parameters especially against temperature, pH, Turbidity, Total hardness, Total Alkalinity, DO, BOD and Nitrates. The site 3 and the site 4 shows some signs of eutrophication.
The most favourable edible plant of the world is Potato, the people of all age group living in different part of the world like it. It is a delicious as well as nutritive food item.lt is rich in carbohydrate, fibres, calcium and vitamins and it is one of the cheapest source of energy for the animals. The vegetable Solenum luberosum (potato)is lack of fat, Cholesterol and releasing very slow calories recommended it as a healthy food for the people.
The farmers of Ramgarh produces abundant quantity and good quality of Solenum luberosumand supply it to the markets of different cities of country through roads and rails.Ramgarh’s potato is considered to be one of the best quality in its kind,the people like it and they specially demand as Ramgarhia aloo for it. The farmers get sound earning after sale the potato throughout the year.
The vegetable pest Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Febricius, is a serious pest of cucurbitaceous family rarely found on solanaceous plant. The larvae and the adult of this pest damage the aerial and green part of crop. The vegetable Solenum luberosum is a modified stem developing underground as bulb so infestation was not serious, sometimes 10% to 20% of the aerial shoot of the crop of the field destructed by the pest. The pest damage the crop in such a way that the size of tuber were small, their shape, number of tuber and the total production declined. It also damaged the marketing of the crop.
The life cycle was studied during the year 2018 -2020 at Ramgarh .During the study it was found that the life-cycle of pest was very simple generally it was completed 07 to 08 overlapping generations between Februarys to November of theyear. In winter season the pest get in hibernating phase of life in the cracks and crevices or in the soil. The pest damage the cultivated vegetable plants and loss not only the quality, quantity, and taste of the vegetables but also the profit of the farmers.
Ramgarh is a beautiful district town, the rural area is known for agriculture and gross vegetable production, the climatic condition is moderate and suitable for vegetable production. The farmers are advised to control the pest by spraying the chemical pesticides carbaryl 0.2%, Malathion0.05%, or diazinon 0.02%.
The species of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) is one of the most common and familiar species of small singing birds, having conical bills, and feeding chiefly on seeds and insects. This species of birds is noted for its familiarity, voracity, attachment to its young ones, and fecundity. It has co- evolved with man, and is found in almost all parts of world, including India, though, most chiefly, in Europe. But, now-adays, this species of birds is slowly and gradually becoming uncommon or endangered. Its population is declining day—by-day with much speed, which is a matter of great concern for the whole Earth. These house sparrows, in fact, are the bio-indicators of the environmental health, and so, their disappearance is a warning signal to all of us. The vanishing of sparrows has widely been reported, from all over the world, and the condition is aggravating more and more with the passage of time. Now, the question arises regarding the main factors responsible for such a misfortunate happening. This research paper, therefore, attempts at explaining all those numerous reasons behind the dramatic reduction in the population of house sparrows in last few years. At the same time, it purports at finding solutions to those hurdles which have put a question marks on the long-lasting survival of this tiny creature on the Earth. Obviously enough, this investigation report is extremely significant in order to make people aware of the different causes behind the decline in the population of sparrows and to provide preventive measures among them so that their protection and conservation can be ensured immediately.
Seasonal changes in the body and liver composition (water, lipid and nonlipids), liver weight and LSI (liver smatic-index) were studied fora period of 14 months in an air breathing fish, Channa striatus (Bloch). The lipid content was maximum (10.68%) in November and minimum (5.20%) in May. The variations in the water and lipid of body and liver showed almost identical trend. The water and lipid contents are inversely proportional to each other. The gonadal cycle and fattening of this fish also seem to be inversely related. The lipid and nonlipid contents were higher in males as compared to females but the water content in females was higher than the males. The LSI is males were higherthan the females.
The calorific values (Total and K. cal/g dry weight), moisture, protein and ash content in relation to sex and body weight were studied in Macrognathus aculeatum (Bloch). With unit increase in body weight the total calorific values, moisture, protein and ash content increased by powers of 0.720, 0.969, 0.876 and 1.376 respectively. The females showed higher calorific value (4.320 K.cal/g) than that of males (4.052 K.cal/g).
Effect of some hormones and pharmacological drugs on oxygen uptake and equivalent energy utilization (E.E.U.) has been made in an air breathing fish, Mastacembelus armatus (Lac). The value for oxygen uptake (mol2h) and E.E. U. (K.cal/h) in control (45.0±1.5g) were 4.512 Mlo2/h and 0.0216 K.Cal/h respectively. Treatment of hydrocortisone, adrenaline, progesterone and thiouracil bring about significant decrease while the treatment of testosterone and L-thyroxin bring about significant increase in oxygen uptake and E.E. U.
The effect of sublethal concentration of certain pesticides with special reference to synergistic and antagonistic phenomenon on the calorific contents have been studied in an air breathing fresh water siluroid fish, Rita rita (Ham.). The calorific value of the control group of fishes was 3.82K.cal/g dry weight. The treatment of Metacid 50 (A), Dithane M-45 (B) and Kelthane EC (C) bring about significant decrease in calorific values. The combination of A+C, B+C, A+B, and A+B+C make the effect synergistic. The effective hirachy were in the following sequence -A+B>B+C>A+B+C>A+C. The TLm (24 h) values of different pesticides (including various combination) have also been calculated at 28.0±1.00C. The significance of this study as bioindicator and in water quality management has been discussed in this paper.
Studies on the effect of unizeb on oxygen consumption in an air breathing fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) was made. Unizeb caused significant decrease both in aquatic and total oxygen consumption as compared to control. On the other hand exposure of fishes to Unizeb caused significant increase in aerial oxygen uptake. The reason for such changes in oxygen consumption has been discussed.
The present papers deals with the interspecific variations in the circadian rhythms of RBC counts and Hb contents in different species of the genus Mystus. The maximum values of RBC counts and Hb contents were recorded between 9.0 to 11.0 PM. in M. vittatus and between 3.0 to 7.0 PM. in M. cavasius while the M. bleekri behaved differently showing two peaks, first at 9.00 A.M. and next at 1.00 A.M. (night). The relevance and importance of such rhythms in aquaculture have been discussed.
Studies on the effect of different pesticides and their combinations at 48 and 96 hour exposure on water (Moisture), protein content and calorific values in a fresh water teleostean fish, Mystus vittatus (Bloch) has been made. The treatment of Kelthane (an organochlorine), Metacid 50 (an organophosphate pesticide) and Dithane M-45 (a carbamate pesticide) increased the water content in M. vittatus, though the effect was more pronounced at 96 hr exposure as compared to 48 hrs exposure. The treatment of pesticides brought significant decrease in protein content and calorific values (k/cal/g), the maximum decrease was observed after the treatment of Metacid at 8.0 ppm after 96 hrs exposure. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Studies on the effect of some exogenous hormones and drugs on haematological indices were made in a freshwater air breathing snake headed murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). The treatment of ACTH, adrenaline, phentolamine, growth hormone (GH), T4, T3 and methyl testosterone brought about significant increase (P<0.05) in TEC (total erythrocyte counts), Hb content, PCV values and oxygen capacity as compared to control. The MCHC, MCV and SAE (Surface area of erythrocytes) showed drecreasing trends while thiouracil failed to after these indices to a significant level.
In the present study an attempt has been made to study the inter-relationship, if any, between cyclic changes in the activties of adrenocortical tissues and oxygen consumption in the fresh water fish, Mystus tengara (Ham.). A positive correlation occurred between mean nuclear diameter (MND) of the interrenal tissues and oxygen consumption (VO2) in Mystus tengara (Ham.). In both the sexes minimum MND and VO2 were observed in December- January while the maximum values for these parameters were recorded in June. The injection of hydrocortisons brings about highly significant increase in VO2 while treatment of adrenaline brings about significant decrease in VO2 in this fish.
In the present study an attempt has been made to assess biochemical composition of ten species of fresh water teleostean fishes, with a view to know their relative nutritional values. Heeropneustes fossils (BO had higher values of protein and other components while Pangasius pangasius (Ham.) had more lipid as compared to other fishes.
Metals such as iron, copper, zinc and manganese, are essential metals as they play important role in biological systems for normal physiology. But the same metals can become lethal when consumed above the threshold level. Others, such as lead and mercury are non-essential and highly toxic even at very low concentrations. Excess amount of metals uptake by animals find their way to human body and are very harmful. High demand for excessive production of poultry meat has led to the extensive modifications of poultry feeds in the recent years. Usage of chemicals in profit making poultry business is drawing the attention of consumers. So the results of the study conducted to assess the residues of heavy metals in poultry meat showed no much difference between breeds and the values are within permissible limit.
Studies and diurnal variations of primary productivity in Sunderdam reservoir was conducted to evaluate the productive potentiality and the nature of community metabolism in the reservoir. Remarkable high values of gross and net productivity was recorded during winter months while minimum values in monsoon month. Abiotic factors like light intensity, water temperature, nutrients (Phosphate, Silicate and Nitrate) and biotic factors like phytoplankton density etc. influenced the productivity values. Production and Respiration (P/R) ratio was evaluated more than one (P/R >1), which referred to autotrophic nature of the reservoir. Besides, Net Daily Metabolism (NDM) revealed positive value in different seasons (0.169 —0.307) confirmed the community metabolism was dominated by production and emphasized the importance of autochthonous input to the reservoir.
The use of pesticides rises exponentially with the industrial and agricultural development. However, these pesticides create serious threat to the non-target organisms both in terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems. Hazardous chemicals from industrial wastes and agricultural runoff are the main causes of water pollution. An aquatic organism mainly fish accumulates many contaminants directly through their gills and skin and indirectly via their food chain, which may cause diverse alternations in their vital organs. In the present study, effect of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the histology of testis of a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossils (H. fossilis) was studied by exposing the fish to sub lethal concentration at32pg/l/day (1/10 of LC50) for a period of 14 and 28 days. Histopathological changes were observed in testis which showed shrinkage of seminiferous lobules and vacuolization in the tubular epithelium as well as in interlobular space. Histological impairment in tissues of lobules was also observed during different periods of exposure, suggesting adverse impact of PCP on testis of H. fossils.
Poultry is one of the important sources of animal protein along with vitamins and minerals. As desi breed are slow growers, now superior breeds of chicken are reared for eggs and meat, using formulated feeds. Nutrient composition may vary between breed, gender, age, feed used and also differs according to the edible portion of the body. This study was done to determine the macro and micro nutrient levels in various tissues of different breeds of poultry meat. The results of the present study show difference in the amount of nutrients in various tissues of different breeds.
Water quality of the river Chenab, an important Himalayan tributary of the river Indus, was studied at Akhnoor and has been described. Temperature, depth, turbidity and BOD recorded winter low record. Transparency, conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium and total hardness remained comparatively high during winter. Carbonate, sodium and potassium observed winter increase during first year and low record during second year. pH, nitrate, sulphate and silicate observed winter low record during first year and high record during second year. Phosphate observed irregular record throughout the year. These physico-chemical parameters remained irregular during summer and monsoon season.