EFFECT OF L-THYROXINE AND THIOURACIL ON GROWTH IN HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS (BLOCH)

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In the present work an attempts has been made to study the effect of L-thyroxine (T4) and Thiouracil (Tu) on somatic (S.G.R.) and linear growth rate (L.G.R.) in an air breathing freshwater siluroid fish, Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch). The treatment of L-thyroxine (at physiological dose) brought about significant increase both in somatic growth rate as well as linear growth rate while the effect of thiouracil was contrary to this. The details have been discussed in this paper.

TOXICITY AND BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE OF THE FISH CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH) AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF WEEDICIDE (AQUATHOL) DURING STATIC ACUTE BIOASSAYS

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The present work is an endeavour to study the toxicity and behavioural responses of the fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) at different concentrations of a weedicide (Aquathol or Endothal) during static acute bioassays. The TLm or LC50 values were computed to be 3.162, 2.405, 2.290 and 1.550 mg/I at 31.0±1.00C respectively for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs exposures of aquathol. The safe concentration value was computed to be 0.418 mg/I at this temperature. The behavioural response of Channa punctatus (Bloch) was grossly depenent on the concentration and length of exposure.

TOXICOLOGICAL IMPACT OF METACID ON CHANGES IN BIMODAL UPTAKE PATTERN IN AN AIR BREATHING TELEOSTEAN FISH, CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN.)

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Toxicological impact on Metacid (an organo-phosphate pesticide) on changes in bimodal (i.e. via aerial, aquatic route and total) oxygen uptake pattern has been studied in an air breathing siluroid teleostean fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn). The treatment of Metacid brought statistically significant decrease in total oxygen uptake (cc/kg/h) as compared to control but oxygen consumption through aerial route increased significantly in Metacid exposed fishes. The reason and mechanism for such changes have been discussed in this paper.

STATISTICAL RELEATIONSHIP BETWEEN CYCLIC CHANGES IN BLOOD INDICES VS. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN A FRESH WATER TELEOSTEAN FISH, CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study the correlation, if any, between the cyclic changes in VO2 and different haematological parameters in an air breathing fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Two peaks of activity were marked in both the parameters. A positive correlation occurs between RBC/V02, Hb/V02 and PCV/V02 in both the sexes. The increase in VO2 seems to be more associated with the increase in RBC count than with the increase in Hb content and PCV. Cyclic changes in VO2 and different blood parameters show parallelism and a physiological balance exists between these two parameters.

STUDIES ON PROXIMATE BODY COMPOSITION OF INDIAN CAT FISH, CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN.) FED DIET CONTAINING VARIOUS LEVELS OF GOSSYPOL FOR 12 WEEKS

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Studies on whole body proximate composition of Indian cat fish (Clarias batrachus Linn.) fed on diet containing various levels of gossypol (a toxin, naturally occuring polyphenolic pigment in the cotton plant, Gossipium spp.) for 12 weeks have been made. Whole body moisture significantly increased whereas lipid decreased when dietary gossypol levels were increased to 600mg/kg or higher. However, no significant differences were observed for body moisture and lipid in fishes fed diet containing 600, 1200 and 1500 mg gossypol/kg respectively. Changes were observed in protein contents also. The details have been discussed in this paper.

LIFE TABLE AND BIONOMICS OF ZYGOGRAMMA BICOLORATA PALLISTER (MEXICAN BEETLE) IN CHITRAKOOT, SATNA (MP)

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The Mexican beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) an effective bio­control agent of P hysterophorus, was introduced in 1983 from Mexico to Bangalore. Both adults and larvae of beetle can feed on leaves. This investigation has been formulated to know the infestation, feeding and damage behaviour of Z. bicolorata on the host plant (P hysterophorus) and effectiveness to the control of Parthenium. Studied on bionomics of Zygogramma showed that the Mexican beetle lay small, elongated, light yellowish eggs on leaf surface of host plant (Parthenium) in the laboratory conditions. The average incubation period hatching percent, longevity and fecundity were observed. The adult Zygogramma beetles feed and oviposit on Parthenium leaves while the newly hatched larvae feed voraciously on the terminal and auxiliary buds, leaves, stem parts etc.

CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGY OF CLIMBING PERCH, ANABAS TESTUDINEUS (BLOCH) UNDER VARIED DIETARY CONDITIONS

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The present work in an endeavour to study the effect of different kinds of supplementary feeding on certain blood parameters in a freshwater air breathing fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). Different haematological values in control (Group I) group of fishes were -RBC counts, 2.1±0.006 mfflion/mm3; Hb content, 10.8±0.10g%; PCV or haematocrit value, 32.0±1.42; MCH, 5.143pg; MCV, 15.42mm3 and MCHC, 33.75%. The experimental animals were fed with six (Group II-V11) types of supplementary feeds which caused significant increase in RBC counts, Hb content and PCV values as compared to control which is indicative of the facts that experimental animals become more healthy as compared to control. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.

STUDY OF MORPHO-HISTOLOGY OF ALIMENTARY CANAL IN RELATION TO FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF PUNTIUS SARANA FROM THE WETLAND (CHAUR) OF BEGUSARAI DISTRICT NORTH BIHAR

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Puntius species are common fish available in the wetland of Begusarai. In the present study Puntius sarana has been selected for the study of morpho-histology of alimentary canal in relation to feeding behaviour. The study will be helpful for the culture and farming of Puntius species. The alimentary canal of the fish having buccal cavity, oesophagus, Intestinal bulb, Intestine and rectum. The result on gut content analysis of Puntius sarana suggests that the fish feeds on molluscs, crustaceans, algae, detritus, insect larvae, mosquito & their larvae, macrophytes and fish. On the basis of different food items present in the stomach contents, Puntius sarana may therefore be conveniently regarded as an omnivorous fish. The preference on molluscs, crustaceans and insect matter in P. sarana indicates their ability to feed throughout the water column and presence of a high percentage of detritus in the gut indicates that the fish feeds in bottom.

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF NYCTANTHES ARBORTRITIS ON PROMASTIGOTE FORM OF LEISHMANIA DONOVAN! IN IN-VITRO CONDITION

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In the present study, in vitro anti- leishmanial activity of Ethyl acetate, Methanolic, Benzene and Chloroform extracts of Nyctanthes arbortristis have been evaluated. Among those extracts Methanolic extracts of Nyctanthes arbortristis shows effective antileishmanial activity against promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. Nycanthic acid,3-4,secotriterpene acid present in Nyctanthes arbortristis may be responsible for inhibiting the growth of parasite. It was found that LC50=150 pg/ml i.e. 50% inhibition at 100 pg/ml and LC90=200 pg/ml for complete inhibition is required to inhibit the growth of Leishmania donovani. The details have been discussed in the paper.

THYROID HORMONES AND HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES LEVELS IN THYROID DISORDER FROM ENDEMIC POPULATION OF GAYA DISTRICT, INDIA

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Thyroid disorder are prevalent in Gaya district in the state of Bihar. Thyroid hormones have been shown to influence the haematopoiesis, but the effects of disorders on thyroid hormones and hematological indices levels have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate some hematological parameters in peripheral blood of hypo- or hyperthyroid patients. Patients treated for thyroid disorders between June 2012 to November 2015 were included. This study evaluated Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3), blood levels, red blood cell count (RBC), the levels of RBC­related indices such as Haemoglobin, Granulocytes, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Platelet count and also some immunological factors such as the counts of circulating White blood cells (WBC)etc. The details have been discussed in the paper.

EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS HORMONES ON SOME ASPECTS OF RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY IN A FRESH WATER MURREL FISH, CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH).

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In the present work an attempts has been made to study the effect of few exogenous hormones on aquatic, aerial and total oxygen consumption (cc/kg/h) and equivalent energy utilization (E.E.U, K.Cal/hr) in an air breathing murrel teleostean fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) with a view to assess whether or not these hormones have calorigenic action in this fish. Treatment with hydrocortisone, testosterone propionate and L-thyroxine brought significant increase in total oxygen uptake as compared to control fishes. The aerial oxygen uptake did not dffer to significant level in hydrocortisone treated group but in testosterone and L-thyroxine treated group it increased to a significant level. On the other hand, treatment with adrenaline, progesterone and thiouracil brought significant decrease both in aerial and total oxygen uptake as compared to control. The resons for such changes in bimodal oxygen uptake after the treatment with different hormones have been discussed in this paper.

EFFECT OF FEW PESTICIDES ON CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILES AND SOME TISSUES IN FRESH WATER TELEOST, CATLA CATLA (HAM.)

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‘In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of an organochlorine (MeritAlpha or Prophenofos) and an organophosphate (Mardo orAlpha Cypermethrin) pesticides on changes in acid and alkaline phosphatases in brain, liver and mucles in a freshwater major carp, Catla catla (Ham.). In the present study the inhibition in the activities of all the enzymes, assayed were found to be increased with the increase in the exposure of pesticides. Mardo and Merit Alpha were equally sensitive to both acid and alkaline phosphatase. The details have been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON TOTAL, CU-ZN SOD AND MN-SOD ACTIVITIES IN THE LIVER OF LABEO ROHITA (HAM.) COLLECTED FROM SIX RIVER SITES OF BIHAR

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study total Cu-Zn SOD (Super oxide dismutases) activity (Units.mg-1 protein) in the liver of Labeo rohita (Ham.) collected from six different experimental sites (namely River Sone, River Koshi, Near Saharsa, River Ganga at Buxar, Patna, Mokama and Barh). Total SOD (antioxidant defence system) in liver were lowest at Buxar and Patna site of river Ganga and highest at Barh. Cu-Zn SOD were lowest at Buxar and highest at Barh. Mn-SOD activities were lowest at Patna and highest at Barh. The reason for such variations in SOD activities in liver tissues in a fresh water major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.) has been discussed in detail in this paper.

CALCULATION OF MEDIAN LETHAL DOSE AND MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSE OF SODIUM ARSENITE IN MALE MUS MUSCULUS

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Arsenic poisoning in ground water of Gangetic zone of Bihar causes lots of health issues to human. LD50 is a primary screening step for the evaluation of the toxic properties of a compound. The objective of present work to calculate the oral LD50 and MPD of sodium arsenite in mice. The present research, different doses like 10, 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30mg/kg body weight of Sodium arsenite was given orally by gavage method to the six different groups of Mus musculus. Signs and symptoms of toxicity and probable death of mice were observed on 1st day and then on 2nd, 3’d, 4th and 5th days to calculate the Median lethal dose (LD5O) and maximum permissible dose (MPD) of Sodium arsenite. The LD50 was found to 18 mg/kg body weight after oral administration in Swiss albino mice. Finally, MPD of Sodium arsenite by oral route in mice was found to be 2 mg/kg body weight.

STUDIES ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT RIVER SYSTEM OF BIHAR

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The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the magnitude of physico-chemical parameters in river system (namely river sone, river koshi near Saharsa, river Ganga at Buxar, Patna, Mokama and Barh) with a view to assess its suitability for fish growth and other purposes. The parameters studied were pH, temperature, D02, salinity and soluble or suspended inorganic constituents. DO2 of these sites have significant differences. Barh site of river Ganga was most suitable for fish growth and development while Buxar was most unfavourable site as evidenced by faunistic studies. The details have been discussed in this paper.

PESTICIDES INDUCED CHANGES ON BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES IN LIVER AND MUSCLES IN FRESH WATER FISH, CATLA CATLA (HAM.)

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 The present work is an endeavour to study the toxic effects on certain biochemical constituents (such as total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipids) of Mardo (orAlpha cypermethrin, an organophosphate) and Merit Alpha (or prophenofos, an organochlorine) in hepatic and muscular tissues of Catla catla after chronically exposing (15 and 30 days) the fishes to the toxicant. These pesticides caused significant decrease in total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipid both in the muscle and liver tissues in the fresh water Indian major teleostean carp, Catla catla (Ham.). The reasons for such changes have been discussed in detail.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF L-THYROXINE AND THIOURACIL ON THERMAL TOLERANCE IN A CLIMMBING PERCH, ANABAS TESTUDINEUS (BLOCH)

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The present work is an endevour to study the effect of thermal tolerance in a fresh water air breathing climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). The LC„ value of thermal tolerance of this fish (weighting 35.0±1.0g) was recorded to be 39.5±0.13°C. The L-thyroxine and thiourea treated fish showed statistically significant increase and decrease respectively in their thermal tolerance. The details of the mechanism has been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY OF EARIAS VITELLA FABRICIUS (LEPIDOPTERA, CYMBIDAE ) ON THE PLANT ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS OF RAMGARH, (JHARKHAND, INDIA ).

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The life cycle of Earias vitella Fabricius was completed on a cotton plant Gossypium hirsutum. It is a serious pest of cotton, and damages 75% of cotton which results poor production of the cotton crop. The present paper deals with the life cycle of Earis vitella Fabricius on a new vegetable plant Abelmoschus esculentus in Ramgarh (Jharkhand, India).

The life cycle Earias vitellaFabricius was studied during the year 2019 -2020 at Ramgarh .During the study it was found that the pest completed 6 to7 overlapping generations in a year. The pest enters the fruits of vegetable and protect themselves from the birds and cause a damage to the vegetables. The lady’s finger is a healthy and tastier vegetable, rich in carbohydrate, minerals and fibres . The pest damage the cultivated vegetable plants and cause loss not only the quality and quantity of the vegetables but also the profit of the farmers.

Ramgarh is a district town, the rural area is known for gross vegetable production, and marketing of the vegetables. The climatic condition of Ramgarh is moderate and suitable for vegetable production.

FOOD-SNATCHING BEHAVIOUR IN ANTS

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2-dec-2020

Foraging behaviour of the ants Anoplolepis gracilipes, Camponotous compressus, Crematogaster subnuda, Meranoplus bicolor, Monomorium pharaonis, Pheidole roberti and Tetraponera rufonigra was studied following supply of different food items in the open foraging ground with a view fo  note the interactions, if any. /t is revealed that, in spite of available foods at the supplying sites Paratrechina longicornis, Pheidole roberti, Anoplolepis gracilipes and Tetraponera rufonigra are habituated to face the food-snatching operations initiated either by the foragers of the same species belonging to different colonies or by the other competing species who are very much involved in sharing the food resources from the same foraging area. Food-snatching event is associated with the abrupt and brutal attack by the snatcher ant on the ants carrying food to their nest. Thus, fighting in most cases was inevitable and many of the food—transporting ant individuals were seen injured severely. The food snatching behaviour exhibited by these ant species was not only to ensure the need of their food but also a strategy to treat the competing ant species psychologically by imposing fearful threat, as a dominant species, not to visit the said foraging ground again, in future.

INVESTIGATION OF PESTICIDES IN MILK SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES: PREVALENCE AND HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

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Milk being a complete food with important nutrients in balanced proportions; it is consumed by people of different age groups. But now the milk is also getting contaminated due to pollutants including pesticides. Because of its nutritional value and hazardous effects of pollutants, the issue of pesticide residues in milk gains immediate aftenfion of researchers. Present investigation has reported the presence of some pesticides in milk samples but within the permissible limit.