STUDIES ON SOME ASPECTS OF HORMONAL REGULATION ON NUTRITIONAL ENERGETICS IN A FRESH WATER FISH, CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH).

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  The present work is an endeavour to study some aspects of hormonal regulation on nutritional energetics in a fresh water snake headed murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Effect of L-thyroxine, triiodo-throxine, 17a or p -Methyl testosterone and growth hormones were studied on food consumption rate, feeding efficiency, conversion ratio, growth and as a whole on bioenergetics in a freshwater fish,Channa punctatus (Bloch). These hormones served as an apetite stimulant and consequently both feeding and growth rate increased. The best performance was observed after the injection of 17 a or p – Methyl testosterone. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON TOTAL CORPUSCULAR AND PLASMA VOLUME IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT IN ATELEOSTEAN FISH, CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN.)

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Studies on total corpuscular and plasma volume in relation to body weight have been made in an air breathing siluroid fish,Clarias batrachus (Linn) by Dye dilution technique using Evan blue (T-1824) for plasma volume and haematocrit method for corpuscular volume. Plasma and corpuscular volume per gram body weight decrease from lower to higher weight groups but become constant at 70 gram animals. The total plasma and corpuscular volume increase from lower to higher weight groups. They show the following relationship:

Body weight Vs. Plasma volume logY =log 0.0130+0.9227logW

Body weight Vs. Corpuscular voi logY = logO. 0309+0.6000 logW

Plasmavol. Vs. Corpuscularvol. logY=log0.5192+0.6479logW

The coefficient of correlation between body weight Vs. Plasma volume, body weight Vs. corpuscular volume and between plasma volume Vs. corpuscular volume have been computed in be 0.9989, 0.9980 and 0.994 respectively. This shows high degree of correlation between all the foregoing parameters and sed

A BIOMETRIC STUDY OF SOME ASPECTS OF THE BIOLOGY OF MASTACEMBELUS ARMATUS (LACEPEDE) (PISCES : MASTACEMBELIDAE)

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  A biometric study of growth of various body parameters in relation to standard body length, length- weight relationship, relative condition factor and fecundity of the mud eel (Mastacembelus armatus) has been made. The fastest growing body parameters is the region between the snout and ventral fin. This is followed in decreasing order by snout to dorsal fin, pectoral fin to anus, breadth at the dorsal fin, snout to pectoral fin and head length. The length-weight relationship follows the cube law during summer months. The male and female fish become sexually mature when they attain a length of 15.5cm (just above 15gand nearly 18cm (22g) respectively. The fecundity of this species is very low (210-1828). The advantges and disadvantages of the form aquired by M.armatus in response to selection pressure are discussed. The peculiar shape, growth pattern of body paramters and low fecundity render this fish totally unsuitable for commercial exploitation.

STUDIES ON CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES FOLLOWING CYTHION TREATMENT IN A TELEOSTEAN FISH, CHANNA GACHUA (HAM.)

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  In the present work an attempt has been made to study the changes in certain haematological indices following Cythion (an organophosphate pesticide) treatment in a teleostean fresh water air breathing murrel fish,Channa gachua (Ham) which are also cultured in paddy fields. The treatment of Cythion caused anaemia i.e. significant decrease in RBC counts, Hb content and PCV values. However, a clear trend of increase in WBC counts,MCV and MCH was observed. MCHC values did not differ much orto a significant level. The details have been discussed in this paper.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON TOXICITY AND BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES UNDER PESTICIDES INTOXICATION IN A FRESH SILUROID FISH, RITA RITA (HAM.)

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  In the present work an attempts has been made to evaluate the toxicity and behavioural responses of two most commonly used pesticides namely Merit Alpha (an organochlorine) and Mardo (Organophosphate) in a fresh water siluroid fish,Rita rita (Ham.). The 24 hrs LC50 values for Merit Alpha and Mardo were 0.0059 mg/I and 0.445 mg/I respectively. A shift from normal behaviour was observed in fish upon exposure to different lethal concentrations of both the pesticides. The details have been discussed in this paper.

FISH CULTURE PRACTICES IN KOSI REGION OF BIHAR

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Fish culture is an important enterprise especially in the Kosi region of Bihar. In the present investigation, a survey has been made in three districts of the Kosi region to find out the adoption of fish farming recommendations to the farmers. It has been found that the literacy rate among fish farmers in the region is 41.6% and 73.3% of farmers are trained in fish farming. The average pond size is 0.37 ha and 56.6% ponds are perineal. About 70% ponds are older than 15 years, 46.6% fish farmers prepare their pond before stocking,40% farmers remove unwanted plants before stocking the pond 46.6% farmers use organic manure in the pond and 40% use lime and 46.6% use inorganic fertilizers while stocking the pond,23.3% farmers stocks the pond with spawn and 30% farmers uses three fish species in the pond. Before stocking the seeds about 70% farmers treat the seed fordiseases.20% farmers feed the fishes with formulated feed as supplementary feeding. 93% of farmers feed their fishes for more than six months, 96% farmers contact to Department of Fisheries in case of adverse conditions observed during the culture period.

ZINC INDUCED CHANGES IN DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNTS OF THE FRESH WATER TELEOST, HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS (BLOCH)

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Zinc is an essential trace element for humans and plays a critical role both as a structural component of proteins and as a cofactor in about 300 enzymes. Excessive zinc intakes can produce acute and chronic effects of toxicity. Differential leukocyte counts represent important characteristics of the health status of fish and in many cases they are also helpful in evaluating their immune system. In the present investigation, Heteropneustes fossilis were exposed to the essential heavy metal, zinc. Acclimatized fishes were divided into four different groups: Group A (Control),Group B (1:00 ppm ofZn), Group C (3:00 ppm ofZn) and Group D (6:00 ppm ofZn) during different exposure periods (7 Days, 14 Days, 21 Days and 28 Days). The results indicated pronounced effects on the blood picture. The small and large lymphocytes reduced significantly, the most conspicuous changes being in group C at 28 daysexposure. The control value of small lymphocyte was 42%,the maximum reduction of small lymphocyte was 33% in group D at 28 days post treatment while the large lymphocytes were reduced by 27% during maximum exposure period (28 days) at minimum concentration of zinc (1:00 ppm). Maximum increase in the percentage of neutrophils was 28% during 28 days exposure period at 3.00 ppm ofZn (Group C). Maximum increase in the number of monocytes was 6% during 7 days in group C and 21 days in group D. The highest increase in eosinophils was 6.0% (28 days: 1.00 ppm of Zn). Basophils showed little fluctuation in their values {0-3%).The above examinations indicated that the small and large lymphocytes decreased while the neutrophils, monocytes and basophils increased in their concentration. It can be concluded thatthe findings related to D.L.C. changes can effectively be used as important indicators of zinc-related stress in fish.

EFFECT OF VARYING LEVEL OF DIETARY LIPID ON THE GROWTH OF JUVENILES OF ROHU, LABEO ROHITA

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Present study was conducted to study the effect of varying level of dietary lipid on the growth, feed conversionratio (FCR) and body composition of the juveniles of Labeo rohita. Group of 25 juveniles in triplicate (average weight0.022 gm ± 0.002 gm) were fed on three iso-nitrogenous experimental diets containing (40% protein) and varying levels of lipid i.e., 6%, 9% and 12% fora period of 60 days. Results revealed that the best increment in growth was obtained with 9% supplementary lipid (%WG 26.08 ± 0.681) followed by the diet containing 12% lipid (%WG 23.41 ±1.646) and least with 6% lip 丨d (%WG 22.71 ± 1.540). FCR and feed conversion efficiency(FCE) shows inverse relation as highest value ofFCE(9.35) and least

value of FCR (10.70) was obtained in juveniles fed on 9% lipid diet with significant differences (p ^ 0.001). Further biochemical analysis revealed that highest value of muscle lipid has been found in juveniles fed on9% lipid diet i.e., 1.11 gm and least with diet containing 6% lipid i.e., 0.78gm. Thus, based on the present results, itcould be concluded that an artificial feed with 9% supplemented fish oil is sufficient without any adverse effects ongrowth performance and muscle quality.

AN IN VITRO STUDY OF HAEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC EXTRACTS OF MEDICINAL PLAtH AGAVE AMERICANA ON Cs).

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  The medicinal plants synthesise numerous phytochemicals which have potential biological activity, which affect and alter the membrane of human Erythrocytes. In the present study, the comparative an invitro haemolytic study of different extracts of Agave americana has been evaluated. The Methanolic, Ethyl acetate, Chloroform and Benzene was assayed on human erythrocytes(RBCs) with different concentration. The various extracts of Agave americana on human erythrocytes(RBCs) for haemolytic activity with expose of increasing concentration The exposed concentration was 0-500fjg. Ethyl acetate extracts of Agave americana showed haemolytic activity and it was found that IC50 at 300 ^ig and IC90 at 350fjg.

EFFECT OF METHYL PARATHION EXPOSURE ON METABOLIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN PLASMA OF MYSTUS SEENGHALA (SYKES)

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Pesticides used in agricultural fields create a series of toxicological and environmental problems. Methyl parathion (MP),an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide is a widelyused pesticide and is highly toxic to non-target organisms. Fish has been used as indicator speciesfor monitoring of pollution in the aquatic environment Mystus seenghala,an Indian major carp is an edible fish and is highly sensitive to slight stress. Recently, fish biomarkers are widely used to determine the internal and external health status caused by chemicals.

WhenM. seenghala were exposed to acute (0.09 ppm) and sub lethal (0.009 ppm) concentrations of MP to determine the alterations in antioxidant and metabolic enzyme activities in blood plasma. Intoxication with MP resulted in induction of oxidative stress which implies that fish utilizes enzymatic mechanisms to tolerate the effects caused by generated ROS due to MPaccumulation. Significant alterations in GOT and GPT activity in plasma during acute as well as sub lethal exposure might have resulted from the organ damage. Further, MP should be used with caution in order to protect natural waters and aquatic organisms

LEUCISM IN CRITICALLY ENDANGERED LONG-BILLED VULTURE (GYPS INDICUS) IN UDAIPUR DISTRICT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA

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  Vultures are most natural scavengers and they provide an ecological, economical and cultural value. Their presence near the dead body at dumping yard in villages, cities and towns are natural habitat They are carrion feeder. The present note is case of leuclsm or partial albln丨sm in Long-b川ed vulture (Gyps indicus) in Udaipur district Rajasthan. We observed leucism has not affected adults activities like- matting, incubation of egg, nest reconstruction and foraging.

ASSESSMENT OF PARAMETERS OF THE WATER IN RELATION TO EXISTENCE OF CYBISTER CONFUSUS

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  This study was taken to establish the existence of Cybister confusus beetles collected from four ponds located at different villages in Madhepura district (Bihar). The growth performance of beetles has been related to acidity (pH) and salinity (%). Distribution and abundance of beetles may probably be dependent upon water pH which is 5.6 to 6.2. They also show oligohaline in nature.

SEASONAL VARIATION IN WATER QUALITY OF RIVER PUNPUN, BIHAR, INDIA

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  The study describes water quality of River Punpun , Bihar, India. Seasonal changes in the water quality of the river observed during Monsoon, several water quality parameters show considerable changes due to increased run- off from the catchment area and other seasonal factors. A few parameters responsible for secular variation in water quality of the river Punpun was provided by these parameters. Water temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity,dissolved oxygen(DO), biological oxygen demand(BOD),chemical oxygen demand(COD)fsulphate, phosphate,free C02, total iron,total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrogen-nitrite, nitrogen-nitrate, carbonate, bi-carbonatejotal dissolved solids, total suspended solids,sodium, potassium calcium, magnesium, chloride.The seasonal changes in water quality of the river where due to seasonal effects and catchment area characteristics.

ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER OF TUBE WELLAND OPEN WELL WITH REFERENCES TO SUPAUL DISTRICT, BIHAR

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Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis study is important to assess the acceptability of drinking water quality. The water samples of ten tube wells and ten open wells were collected from five different villages of Supaul district, Bihar for the study of physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics of the water samples. The results revealed that the pH varied from 6.5 to 7.0, the electrical conductivity 415-490 pS/cm, carbon dioxide ranged from 4.8-7.8 ppm the total alkalinity ranged from 152­190 ppm total hardness 140-182 ppm dissolved oxygen 1.2-4.2 ppm ,BOD 1.2 -4.8 ppm and COD 38.0­68.0 ppm About 40% tube-wells were found to be polluted with FC (Faecal coliform bacteria) while those for 80% with TC (Total coliform bacteria). All the open wells were infected with FC and TC. The concentrations of testing parameter in the drinking water samples were beyond the permissible limit of the WHO and BIS. In this investigation it has been found that location of latrine,drain,bird’s excreta and sewerage line near tube wells and open wells are more likely the reason of contamination of water with both FC and TC. This maybe a major public health issue, and needs immediate attention forremedeal measures.

ICHTHYOFAUNAL DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANT IN SUBARNAREKHA RIVER ESPECIALLY AT GHATSILA, EAST SINGHBUM DISTRICT IN JHARKHAND STATE.

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Purba Medinipur- 721152 ,West Bengal, India. | *e-mail – mrghorai@gmail.com

Subarnarekha is one of the most important river in India and it originates from Nagri villege near Ranchi district in the state of Jharkhand it traverses through the three states in India ( Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa), and finally join into the bay of Bengal near kirtania port of Baleswar district in the state of Orissa. The present investigation deals with the freshwater fish diversity, distribution and conservation status with respect to physico-chemical parameter of the water habitat during study period ( February 2018 -August 2019) in the middle part of Subarnarekha river at Ghatsila.

Total 58 fish species belonging to 10 order, 21 families and 37 genera have been recorded from two sampling station during the study period. Study revealed that the family cyprinidae was the most dominant group contributing 45% of the total fish species followed by other families. The Shannon – Weiner diversity index and Simpson Dominance index of two different sampling station was indicated that,the highest fish diversity index were recorded at station -II (Raatmohna Riverside) is 3.774 followed by station -1 ( Galudih) is3.770. Out of 58 species, 47 species under least concern (LC), 5 species under near threatened (NT), only 3 species that was under Vulnerable(VU), 3 species under Data Deficient (DD) but there is no species which belonging to under endanger category.

The study also revealed that the river is gradually threatened by discharging of industrial (Hindustan Copper Limited) and domestic effluents, pollution (plastic, agriculture etc.), climate change and several anthropogenic activity. Meanwhile, it is suggested that the administration and local people need to be a legal action urgently for save the fish diversity in near future

IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL BACTERIA PRODUCING A POTENT CATALYST FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION OF L-TYROSINE INTO L-DOPA,AN AN~H-PARKINSON’S DRUG.

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According to Biospectrum, 2018 the current cases of Parkinson’s disease in India are around 300-400 out of 100,000 which are expected to be more than double by 2030. 7 to 10 million people worldwide are living with Parkinson’s disease. L-DOPA is an amino acid used for treating Parkinson’s disease. The current study is based on the isolation and identification of the tyrosinase enzyme-producing bacterial isolates and their application in the production of L-DOPA. In total 57 bacterial isolates have been collected from different areas of Mandsaur, out of which 23 isolates through primary screening were identified for tyrosinase enzyme-producing by their appearance in brown colour colonies in tyrosine enriched media. Secondary screening was done based on extracellular tyrosinase enzyme activity and L-DOPA production. Based on the results of secondary screening, 2 out of 23 isolates were identified as potential tyrosinase producers, having the capacity to convert tyrosine substrate into L-DOPA. Depending on morphological and biochemical characters both the isolates were identified as Clostridium spp. and Citrobacter spp. Clostridium spp. was obtained from the soil of the canteen area of Mandsaur University, whereas Citrobacter spp. was isolated from fenugreek agriculture land. The tyrosinase enzyme activity was calculated as 3.83^103 and 3.88×103 lU/ml and the concentration of L-DOPA production were estimated to be 0.016 mg/ml and 0.010 mg/ml for Citrobacter spp. and Clostridium spp. respectively. The identified bacterial genus could be cultured commercially for the extraction of tyrosinase enzyme used for L-DOPA production. Further research should be carried out for the molecular level of identification of the isolates.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER OF GAULA RIVER AT TARAI REGION OF UTTARAKHAND

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  Physicochemical characteristics of water were studied during March 2016 to April 2016 from the Gaula River at Kichha. The water samples were collected from 3 stations with in the stretch of one kilometer at weekly interval. The water temperature was almost in increasing order from day 0 to day 56 and ranged between 16.61°C and 20.05°C. The pH recorded during the investigation was between 7.37 and 7.58 mg/I and found within the desirable limits for fish growth. The dissolved oxygen concentration recorded between 5.81 to 1.86 mg/I. The value of free carbon dioxide was varied between 1.03 and 3.01 mg/I and was suitable for the survival of aquatic organisms. The total alkalinity values were moderate to high i.e. range between 108.80 and 161.20 mg/I. The total alkalinity showed mean annual values of bicarbonate and carbonate alkalinity respectively, were higher during 42 day of investigation. The finding from the study did not indicate any types of threats to the fauna and flora of the river during the research period. However it is also desirable to analyze the characteristics of water from Gaula River dunng other months and at regular interval.

COGNITIVE INDEX (Cgnlnx) OF NOMADIC TRIBES IN LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

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  Present investigation has been carried to measure the Cognitive Index (Cgnlnx) of Gujjar and Bakarwal tribes of Jammu and Kashmir with respect to the scientific livestock management practices. Gujjar tribes predominantly rear buffaloes whereas,Bakarwals rear sheep and goats. Cognitive Index (Cgnlnx) has been conceptualized as an individual’s knowhow and; proficiency in reasoning and problem solving in livestock management. Findings reveal that majority of the nomadic tribes (53.75%) had medium level of Cognitive Index (Cgnlnx). The overall value of Cognitive Index (Cgnlnx) for both the Gujjar and Bakarwal tribes has been found to be 50.10 respectively leading to the 49.90 percent gap in the Cognitive Index (GpCgnlnx).

ON CERTAIN DEVICES OF THE FLYING FOX PTEROPUS GIGANTEUSTO OVERCOME SUMMER HEAT AT PURULIA, INDIA

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  The bats Pteropus giganteus (Brunnich,1782) are confined to tropical countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, China, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Accordingly they are to face the severity of extreme heat during summer. But, to ensure their survival they have developed the art to combat the heat shock to overcome the effect of dehydration. In course of studies on R giganteus occurring at Simla (23^22’44.20″ N, 86^38’47.02″ E), Purulia of West Bengal, on the way of regular visit to the roosting site concerned it is revealed that, while atmospheric temperature exceeded 42-4^ C and the area was succumbed with loo, the bats were seen to (i) change their hanging posture by keeping the back portion of the body towards south and the front portion towards north, especially during 11.30 am to 3.30 pm; (ii) use their right wing as a fan to provide wind to the body through regular flapping; (iii) change the hanging posture little bit to ensure flapping of the wing by the fellow colony members; (iv) select the roosting tree very close to a waterbody; (v) dip belly at the surface water of the water body during afternoon, and licking water from the body surface following sheltering at the hanging site. Besides, they are also cautious in selecting the roosting trees having suitable canopy configuration so as to minimise the penetration of direct sunlight, at least to avoid the exposure of the direct sunlight It is to be mentioned here that during the years the atmospheric temperature some time raise up to 48^0. Thus, in several occasions many pregnant and aged individuals were seen dead lying on the ground beneath the roosting tree, perhaps being unable to overcome the heat-induced hazards. It is concluded that the bat population in tropical country are at the verge of extinction perhaps with the gradual rising of atmospheric temperature – the global warming.