In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of exogenous hormonal treatment on changes in haematological indices in a fresh water mud eel teleostean fish, Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch). The treatment of T , T Methyl-testosterone, Hydrocortisone, ACTH, Adrenaline, Phentolamine 4 3, and Growth hormone (GH) brought significant (P<0.05) increase in TEC counts, Hb, PCV and oxygen carrying capacity, as compared to control group. The MCV, MCHC and SAE showed decreasing trend. Thiouracil failed to alter changes in these parameters to a significant level. The details have been discussed in this paper.
In the present work an attempt has been made to evaluate the bottom biota through species diversity in a polluted pond (Lilashah Pokhra) at Duraundha Block, Siwan District. The dominant species were Chironomas and Vivipera bengalensis. The physico-chemical parameters of the pond water (such as pH, DO , Free CO , Chloride, Alkalinity, Hydrochloride, Carbonate and Bicarbonate, Nitrate, Silicate and Iron 2 2 etc.) have also been studied. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Studies on chronic toxicity (for 10, 20 and 30 days) of sublethal concentration of a heavy metal, Zinc Sulphate (8.82mg/l) on certain haematological indices have been made in an Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Except MCV and MCHC (which showed increasing trend), most of the blood parameters such as RBC counts, Hb content, PCV, MCH and WBC or total leucocytes counts showed statistically significant decrease as compared to control after chronic treatment of Zinc Sulphate. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper
Chaterghat pond, Chakand and Lakshmipur Pond, Chakand (both from Gaya District) were explored with regard to Periphyton community structure. Species diversity (H) was calculated for both the ponds by using Shannon-Weaver’s equation and found to be more or less same, 2.52283 and 2.66388 respectively. Greater stress of competition for space and resources was observed in Chaterghat Pond, Chakand (J=0.75945) as compared to Laxmipur Pond, Chakand (J=0.88796). Index of dominance (C) and other measure of diversity (D), calculated as D = 1-C, corroborated the above conclusion. Cylindrocapsa sp. amongst the algae was abundant in acidic condition while Rivularia sp. was predominant in neutral condition.
The calorific values (Total and K. cal/g dry weight), moisture, protein and ash content in relation to sex and body weight were studied in Rita rita (Ham.). With unit increase in body weight the total calorific values, moisture, protein and ash content increased by powers of 0.845, 0.696, 0.876 and 1.376 respectively. The females showed higher calorific value (4.320 K.cal/g) than that of males (4.052 K.cal/g). The details have been discussed in this paper.
In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of few hormones and pharmacological drugs on changes in proximate composition in whole body in a fresh water air breathing murrel, Channa marulius (Ham.). The water, protein, lipid and carbohydrate + ash content of the fish body (50.0±1.5g) of control group of fishes were 74.79±0.19, 16.02±0.32, 3.21±0.11 and 5.98±0.43% respectively. The treatment of Hydrocortisome and Durabolin brought decrease in water content but increase in protein and lipid content as compared to control. While the treatment of L-thyroxine brought an increase in water content but decrease in protein and lipid content. The details have been discussed in this fish.
In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of Metasystox (an organophosphate pesticide) on changes in total (WBC counts) and differential counts in a freshwater air breathing siluroid fish, Mystus tengara (Ham.). In control group of fishes total WBC counts (Leucocytes) was 0.214 3 million/mm and percent Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Neurophils, Eosinophils and Basophils were respectively 54.6, 4.4, 37.3, 1.8 and 2.2%. The acute exposure of Metasystox for 96 hrs at sublethal dose (5.19 mg/l) caused an increase in WBC counts. Lymphocytes (%), Neurophil (%), Eosinophils (%) and Monocytes (%), but decrease in Neutrophils (%) and Basophils (%). The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper
Studies on the effect of sublethal concentration (5.0 mg/litre) of a weedicide, Linuron were made for the changes in some haemato-biochemical parameters in an air breathing teleostean fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.). In control group of fishes the values of blood glucose, plasma protein and blood urea were 59.542, 12.04 and 30.92 mg/100ml of blood respectively. The exposure of fishes to sublethal concentration of Linuron (5.0ppm) for different hours (24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs.) caused significant increase in blood glucose and blood urea and considerable decrease in plasma protein. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.
In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of five different types of supplementary feeds on weight gain (SGR), food efficiency and individual growth increment (g/fish/day) in a fresh water air breathing teleost, Channa marulius (Ham.). The experiment was conducted for 60 days in cemented tank (having soil at the bottom). The average daily individual growth increment (g/fish) were 0.502 with rice bran+ground nut oil cake (GNOC), 0.505 with Maize bran + GNOC, 0.510 with fish meal + GNOC; 0.513 with spoiled boiled (SB) egg and 0.517 with SB Egg+Maize bran as compared to control (0.105). The merits and demerits of different feeds have been discussed in this fish.
Studies on seasonal variations in proximate composition have been made in a teleostean air breathing fish, Channa marulius(Ham.) in relation to ambient water temperature. Minimum values of percent water, protein, lipid, carbohydrate content and calorific values (K.cal/g) were recorded in the months of November, March, August, June and February respectively while maximum values of above noted parameters were recorded respectively in the months of July/August, June, December, May and June. The statistical relationships between ambient water temperature Vs. proximate composition fractions 0 0 were established by two separate regression lines one between 18.5 to 29.0 C and another between 29.0 C 0 to 33.4 C. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Studies on the effect of Metasystox (an organophosphate pesticide) on changes in certain haematological indices were made in a fresh water air breathing siluroid fish, Mystus tengara (Ham.). In control group of fishes the RBC counts, Hb content, PCV, MCV and MCHC were respectively 2.26±0.06 3 3 million/mm , 11.78±0.13%, 25.45±1.5%, 113.32? m , 52.45 pg and 49.57%. The acute exposure of Metasystox for 96 hrs at sublethal dose (5.19 mg/l) caused reduction in RBC counts, Hb content, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC as compared to control. The reasons for such changes have been discussed in this paper.
The house crow Corvus splendens is a native species to Indian sub-continent, with presence in southern Iran, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka. House crows are very well adapted in the urban areas where ample food resources and suitable nesting, feeding and roosting sites are available. Crows are monogamous and the pair-bond remains for consecutive seasons. The house crow breeds from March to September, chiefly April, May and June, but peak periods varies locally. In the present study breeding behaviour of house crow was studied in eight different urban locations of south Kolkata. Accordingly surveys were made fromNovember, 2017 to March, 2109 at pre-selected nesting sites of House crow. A total of 1029 trees were surveyed in eight locations out of which 175 trees were found to have the nest of Corvus splendens. Out of 1029 Trees, 175 were considered by Corvus splendens for construction of nests.Though there were many more nesting potential trees along the road side were available, but the crows were interested to make nests on trees of particular families in respect to others.The first nesting pair was observed in December, 2018 to have started the nesting activity, it could be of 15 or 16 months old individual. It took them 18 days to fully construct the nest and eggs were laid on subsequent days. The female and sometimes male incubated the four eggs for 21 days, during this time female was fed by male and vice versa. The chicks grow quickly and leave the nest at around four weeks after hatching, although they were fed by parents almost for one more month.
Dietary items supply in retail shops are routed through a number of steps and storage processes. The middle men involved in between producer and consumer, are not sensitive towards to maintain appropriate conditions during storage and transportation, leading to spoilages. Some of these spoilages are toxic in nature. Growth of toxic Fungi is one such alarming infestation, which is rampant not only during post harvest conditions but even during pre harvest condition. To determine the level of fungal toxicity, samples were collected from retail shops. Present study is confined to Aspergillus group. Aflatoxins represent a group of toxic mold metabolites that are not only toxic but a proved carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen as well. The study provides indirect evidences for many of the human ailments and emphasizes on solar energy drier and space heating mechanism to control it.
Quality of air is deteriorating day by day due to air pollution. Automobile exhaust pipe emission has been major contributor of air pollution in the present scenario. This study was aimed for observing the effects of exhaust pipe emissions on most important plant pigment, Chlorophyll. Jamun plants were exposed to exhaust emissions from vehicles using various fuel types in open top chambers for set duration of time. Total Chlorophyll, Chl.a and Chl.b of all exposed population of Jamun were determined to establish the responses of auto exhaust emission. Chlorophyll content decreased in all exposed plants with maximum reduction noticed in those exposed to diesel using vehicle. Exposure to harmful exhaust constituents causes changes in normal plant physiology and responses in plant species.
The fish community of the Rupnarayan river in relation to limnological parameters was studied by monthly samples taken from June-2016 to May-2017. This river is located at 220 25′ N latitude and 87052’E longitude situated at near Kolaghat of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal. The riverine water is used for producing electricity of kolaghat thermal power station (KTPP), fishery and tourism activities. Fish collections were made with gill nets of standardized dimensions with several mesh sizes. Twenty three (23) fish fauna identified during the study belongs to Cyprinidae 8 species, Clupeidae, Bagridae and Siluridae with each 2 and 3 species and a species each of Engrauilidae, Gobiidae, Mastacembelidae, Ammassidae, Polinemidae, Schilbeidae, Anguilidae, and Mugilidae respectively. The Shanon- Weiner diversity index of up and down stream sampling station indicated a strong relationship with overall species richness showed variation and ranged from 3.00 to 2.83. The most dominant order Cypriniformes (29%) found to be dominant with 8 fish species followed by Siluriformes (25%) 6 species and Clupeiformes (23 %) 3 species. The species diversity is climax in post monsoon, coinciding with favourable conditions such as sufficient water and ample food resources. The diversity was low in pre monsoon probably due to the shrinkage of the water spread of the river. The high value of dissolved oxygen united with low biochemical oxygen demand and other nutrient levels indicate that the water body is moderately oligotrophic in nature. To put aside this diversity and to develop a sustainable fishery practices and proper documentation leading to diversity information system is an insistent need.
Fishes are the very good indicator of the aquatic habitat and also are the chief protein source. Present study was conducted to document the icthyofaunal diversity of Tilaiya reservoir of Koderma district, Jharkhand during January 2018 to June 2018 and recorded 44 fish species belonging to the 05 orders and 16 families .Cyprinidae was the most diversified fish family .Among the 44 fish species 20 species are under the Cyprinidae family,03 species of each are under Channidae and Chichilidae,02 species of each fishes are under Belitoridae,Ambassidae, Notopteridae,Bagaridae and Mastacembelidae whereas 01 species of fishes are under Cobitidae ,Anabantidae Gobiidae, Belontiidae, Claridae, Heteropneustidae, Pangassidae and Siluridae.Further 37 fish species are under IUCN-LC category,05 species are under IUCN-NT category,01 species is in IUCN-DD category whereas 01 species is under IUCN-VU category
Urbanization has lead to formation of heat islands. It has been one of the major reasons of increased harshness of climate and frequency as well as severity of disasters severely damaging our traditional ways of securing food security. Perceiving these developments, UN has enlisted food security amongst its 15 millennium goals. Grain storage is essential for food security in semi-urban areas and is practiced by almost all the households in various ways in various parts of the world. In India, it is practiced in the form of storing grains and preserving dietary items. In this paper, growth of Fungi in cereal storage is investigated in such conditions. The study highlights the incidence of mycotoxic fungi on stored grains and routine dietary items in Kitchen. The study is confined to the effect of relative humidity, pH and temperature on Aspergillus group of fungi. The findings suggest that relative humidity (RH) is most crucial parameter in the growth of fungi followed by temperature and variation in pH. The study is quite crucial for creating conditions of storage to reduce occurance of fungi growth. Solar energy can be directly or indirectly used to achieve desired temperature for storage and maintaining humidity
Zooplanktons are the microscopic unicellular and free swimming animalcules which are known as primary consumer as it feed on Phytoplankton. Its composition is controlled by change in existing environmental conditions. Light and temperature are the major factors which influence the density and diversity of the zooplankton in time and space and of the environmental conditions are considered as fundamental for any limnological parameter of the natural waters. Sample surveys of community structure of Zooplankton were conducted from April 2016 to March 2017 in Kawar lake (Begusarai, Bihar) and Goga beel (Katihar, Bihar). During investigation among 26 species of Zooplankton belonging 6 species of Protozoa, 10 species of Rotifera, 3 species of Copepoda, 6 species of Cladocera and 2 species of Ostracoda from Kawar lake and 27 species of Zooplankton belonging 6 species of Protozoa, 11 species of Rotifera, 6 species of Copepoda, 6 species of Cladocera and only one species of Ostracoda from Goga beel were recorded. Our present study deals with community structure, standing stock and percentage composition of zooplankton of Kawar lake (Begusarai) and Goga beel (Katihar) in 2017.
Present study was conducted to document the icthyofaunal diversity of Bokaro district Jharkhand during Monsoon season. Survey were made on River, Reservoir and major hill stream area of Bokaro district Jharkhand during June to September2017.A total 42 species of fishes belonging to the 6 order 16 families and 28 genera. Out of the total 42 species of fishes 18 species belonging, Cypriniformes,12 species is in Perciformes 08 species is in Siluriformes 02 species is in Synbrachiformes and one species of each Mugilliformes and Osteoglossiformes order .Further the fish species belonging to 15 species is in Cyprinidae family,04 species is in Channidae family,03 species of each Bagaridae and Cichilidae,02 species of each is in Mastacembelidae and Ambassidae Family and 01 species of each Botiidae,Siluridae, Bel itoridae, Cobitidae, Gobi idae, Bel itoridae, Notopteridae,, Al l idae,Sisoridae, Claridae,Heteropneustidae,Siluridae,Mugilidae and Anabantidae family. Further Sorenson’s value of data is 0.72 which shows more than fifty percent and less than hundred percent similarity of the species in three different habitat of aquatic body of the Bokaro District. Data also shows that in out of 42 species 35 species is in LC category,06 are under NT category and 01 species consider under DD in IUCN Red list.
Fresh water snakeheads of family channidae are the shelter for a large number of helminth parasites. The major factors determining the parasitic fauna are life cycle of host, its feeding, sex, length, weight, pollution and seasonal variations of host. Host may be infected with a variety of parasites simultaneously. The present study deals with the parasitic diversity and their seasonal rate of infestation during one year of study period from January 2017 to December 2017. A total no. of 496 parasites were collected from 599 experimental fishes. Highest value prevalence, abundance, intensity and index of infection of parasitic load were recorded in Monsoon season 73.38%, 0.94, 1.29, 0.69 respectively. Ramganga river harbour much parasitic load (148) amongst all the four host collection sites including Dhela river, Gagan river and Deverkhera pond, and highest infected organ found to be the liver among other infected vital organs.
Chronic inflammation has been observed in case of Rheumatoid arthritis which is a long term auto immune disorder that causes swollen and painful joints inflammation, around lungs and heart. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro anti-arthritic potential of a biopolymer Chitosan extracted from Sartoriana spinigera by Hyaluronidase Inhibition Assay. S. spinigera, a freshwater edible crab consumed as a delicacy as well as a medicine by the tribal peoples of Jharkhand, India. Chitosan was extracted from carapace and chelate legs separately by process of demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation. Chitosan was characterized by FTIR spectrum. In vitro anti-arthritic activity of Chitosan was done by Hyaluronidase Inhibition Assay. For the assay various concentrations (100ìg/ml-1000ìg/ml) of chitosan sample from carapace and chelate legs were taken in triplicate separately. Indomethacin was used as reference drug. The FTIR analysis of carapace Chitosan and chelate legs Chitosan showed DD% 98.190% and 80.156% respectively. Hyaluronidase inhibition assay showed that as the concentration of Chitosan increased from 100ìg/ml ,150ìg/ml, 250ìg/ml, 500ìg/ml and 1000ìg/ml, % inhibition of carapace Chitosan gradually increased to 4.08±0.948%, 7.14±0.014 %, 27.55±0.650%, 55.61±1.050% and 81.63±0.500% and for chelate legs Chitosan also, it gradually increased to 6.12±1.020%, 10.20±0.650%, 34.69±0.040%, 67.35±0.040% and 93.88±0.550% respectively. Indomethacin showed 100% inhibition at 150ìg/ml. The value of IC50 for Indomethacin, chelate legs Chitosan and carapace Chitosan was found to be -49.244 ìg/ml, 477.049 ìg/ml and 569.944ìg/ml respectably.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors play very important role in the management of BP. But due to the side effects of synthetic ACE inhibitors, now the focus is towards the use of safe medicinal plants. The potential ligands from the crude extract of Tinospora cordifolia plant leaf having phenolic group which bind with ACE and inhibit its activity was tried in in-vivo condition using Zebrafish. The results of the present study clearly indicate that the ligands of T. cordiflolia leaf extract are effective inhibitors of ACE and lower the blood pressure.
In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of weedicides – Bromacil and Biofenox on changes in biochemical composition in whole body in a fresh water air breathing teleostean fish, Channa gachua (Ham.). Exposure of sublethal concentrations of both the weedicides brought considerable decrease in lipid, carbohydrate and ash content in stomach, intestine, liver, ovary and testis. The protein content did not vary to a significant level after such treatment. However, the water content in various organs increased to a considerable level. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.
Present study investigates synergistic and individual effects of Mercuric chloride and Caldan 50SP on histological profile of testes of Channa punctata. Ten fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentration (1/10th 96hr. LC„ individually and 1/20th in combination (synergistic effect) for 15, 30 and 60 days, respectively, along with a control. Noticeable histopathological changes were observed in the testes. The extent of damage was exposure dependent under the impact of individual toxicants; however, their synergistic effects pronounced more severe damage even when individual toxicants were in lesser concentration and exposure time was also comparatively lesser. These findings are quite suggestive of reproductive impairments.
Endometriosis is a disease condition where endometrial glands and tissues are present outside its uterine location mainly in pelvic peritoneum and on fallopian tubes and ovaries. It affects about 5-10% of women of reproductive phase and 20-50% of women who are suffering already with infertility. In the present article our aim is to review prevalence, causes and clinical characteristics for endometriosis. Overall updated literature survey showed that many factors such as hormonal, environmental, genetic and defective immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. These factors directly or indirectly alter the estrogen level which is responsible for varied and disabling symptoms with adverse effects on reproductive potential of women.