ICHTHYOFAUNAL DIVERSITY AND LIMNOLOGICAL STUDY OF RIVER RUPNARAYAN AT PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT (W.B.)

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The fish community of the Rupnarayan river in relation to limnological parameters was studied by monthly samples taken from June-2016 to May-2017. This river is located at 220 25′ N latitude and 87052’E longitude situated at near Kolaghat of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal. The riverine water is used for producing electricity of kolaghat thermal power station (KTPP), fishery and tourism activities. Fish collections were made with gill nets of standardized dimensions with several mesh sizes. Twenty three (23) fish fauna identified during the study belongs to Cyprinidae 8 species, Clupeidae, Bagridae and Siluridae with each 2 and 3 species and a species each of Engrauilidae, Gobiidae, Mastacembelidae, Ammassidae, Polinemidae, Schilbeidae, Anguilidae, and Mugilidae respectively. The Shanon- Weiner diversity index of up and down stream sampling station indicated a strong relationship with overall species richness showed variation and ranged from 3.00 to 2.83. The most dominant order Cypriniformes (29%) found to be dominant with 8 fish species followed by Siluriformes (25%) 6 species and Clupeiformes (23 %) 3 species. The species diversity is climax in post monsoon, coinciding with favourable conditions such as sufficient water and ample food resources. The diversity was low in pre monsoon probably due to the shrinkage of the water spread of the river. The high value of dissolved oxygen united with low biochemical oxygen demand and other nutrient levels indicate that the water body is moderately oligotrophic in nature. To put aside this diversity and to develop a sustainable fishery practices and proper documentation leading to diversity information system is an insistent need.

EFFECT OF BROMACIL AND BIOFENOX ON CHANGES IN BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUNTS IN FEW ORGANS OF A FRESH WATER TELEOST CHANNA GACHUA (HAM)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of weedicides – Bromacil and Biofenox on changes in biochemical composition in whole body in a fresh water air breathing teleostean fish, Channa gachua (Ham.). Exposure of sublethal concentrations of both the weedicides brought considerable decrease in lipid, carbohydrate and ash content in stomach, intestine, liver, ovary and testis. The protein content did not vary to a significant level after such treatment. However, the water content in various organs increased to a considerable level. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE, CALDAN 50 SP AND THEIR MIXTURE IN THE TESTES OF A FRESH WATER FISH, CHANNA PUNCTATA (BLOCH)

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16June 2019

Present study investigates synergistic and individual effects of Mercuric chloride and Caldan 50SP on histological profile of testes of Channa punctata. Ten fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentration (1/10th 96hr. LC„ individually and 1/20th in combination (synergistic effect) for 15, 30 and 60 days, respectively, along with a control. Noticeable histopathological changes were observed in the testes. The extent of damage was exposure dependent under the impact of individual toxicants; however, their synergistic effects pronounced more severe damage even when individual toxicants were in lesser concentration and exposure time was also comparatively lesser. These findings are quite suggestive of reproductive impairments.

ENDOMETRIOSIS: PRONOUNCING IN REPRODUCTIVE WOMEN WITH ROLE OF ESTROGEN AND AROMATASE

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Endometriosis is a disease condition where endometrial glands and tissues are present outside its uterine location mainly in pelvic peritoneum and on fallopian tubes and ovaries. It affects about 5-10% of women of reproductive phase and 20-50% of women who are suffering already with infertility. In the present article our aim is to review prevalence, causes and clinical characteristics for endometriosis. Overall updated literature survey showed that many factors such as hormonal, environmental, genetic and defective immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. These factors directly or indirectly alter the estrogen level which is responsible for varied and disabling symptoms with adverse effects on reproductive potential of women.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FAMILY DROSOPHILIDAE IN NORTH CHOTANAGPUR, JHARKHAND

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The species of family Drosophilidae is a well known and documented experimental organism in almost in every field of biological science. Revolving around the study of geographical distribution and species diversity of this family, seven districts of North Chotanagpur were surveyed which revealed the occurrence of a total 2909 flies. Taxonomically, the collected species belong to four different genera and twenty species. Moreover, the species are more abundant and diversified in Hazaribag showing negative correlation with the temperature (r = -0.824) and positive correlation with the altitude (r = 0.94). The least abundance was shown in Dhanbad. The result of biodiversity indices indicates the species diversity in the order of HZ> KO> GR> BK> DN> CH> RM.

CONCENTRATIONS OF ARSENIC, LEAD AND NICKEL IN HOUSE CROWS (CORVUS SPLENDENS) OF VISAKHAPATNAM CITY.

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Anthropogenic activities are the cause for occurrence of heavy metals into Environment. To detect environmental contamination, birds can be chosen as bioindicators due to abundance, feeding habits in different tropic levels and long lifespan. House Crows gets exposed to various heavy metals during their foraging activities. Heavy metals concentrations of Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As) were investigated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in Liver, Kidney, Bones, Muscle and Feathers of House Crows (Corvus splendens) in the city of Visakhapatnam. The extent of metal concentrations followed the pattern of Pb>Ni>As and the highest concentration was observed in femur.

THE STUDY OF FEEDING HABITS OF COLLEMBOLA AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL HABITAT.

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The present study is conducted to find out the changes in the feeding habits of springtails, related to their ecological habitat. In this study the results and the observations are compared of the diet of Collembola in three different ecological system viz. (1) tropical forest in Topchachi, Dhanbad. (2) two crop fields in Bhuda, Dhanbad and (3) the epiphytic plant, Tillandsia violacea from a temperate forest in Panchet Dam, Dhanbad. Specimens collected from the crop fields have vegetable matter and fungal conidia in their gut contents. The species associated with the epiphytic plants, showed a distinct type of feeding. In such species, the debris of algae, diatoms and bacteria were found. During the dry season, there were fragments of Prostigmata and Astigmata(Acaridae), mites in the gut of Ptenothrix marmorata .In Seirapurpurea, both in rainy season and dry season, there were fragments of exuvia of springtails and also some parasitic nematodes. The presence of mites in the digestive tract of Collembola from the epiphytic bromeliads could probably be explained by the fact that during the dry season, the populations of Astigmata and Prostigmata are enormous and constitute prey for the spring tails. It is also probable that their ingestion is accidental, or even that they are forced to diversify their diet when the conditions of the ecological niche change.

EFFECT OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE ON ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY OF A FRESH WATER BODY (PAMPOO TALAB) OF DHANBAD (JHARKHAND) INDIA

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Zooplanktons are defined as animals floating on water surface, with the help of wind, current, and other environmental factors, without use of locomotory organs. They provide an important food source for many aquatic organisms. The major zooplanktons belong to Protozoa, Cladocerea, Copepod, and Rotifer etc. and they act as indicator of health of water body. Zooplanktons are very sensitive to the environmental conditions in which they live in.

Any change in the physico-chemical condition of the water body leads to changes in tolerance abundance, dominance & diversity of the planktons.

Therefore the aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of sewage water on Zooplanktons in a fresh water polluted body (Pampoo Talab) of Dhanbad, Dist. Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

This pond was investigated from Jan 16 to Dec 16, once in every month during the morning hours from 8 AM to 10 AM. During the study period , altogether 21 species of Zooplankton were observed, belonging to:- Protozoa 04; Rotifera 10; Cladocera 04; Copepoda 02; Ostracoda 01

Among the different groups of Zooplanktons Protozoans population was abundant. At the site of sewage discharge the population was low.

HISTOLOGY OF FRESHWATER PLANARIA (TRICLADIDA: DUGESIIDAE) FROM NORTHERN WESTERN GHATS, MAHARASHTRA

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Current study has been carried out to understand detailed histology of Planaria (Dugesiidae) to study its anatomical parts along with a morphometric analysis. Morphometry analyzed the Planaria length as 5 millimeters(mm) with width as 2 millimeters(mm) respectively. The orbital space was recorded as 0.080 millimeters(mm). The Haematoxylin & Eosin stained histological sections revealed the particulars of the anatomy. The 4-8 micrometers(pm) thick sections exposed the exclusively ciliated body wall, simple digestive regions with muscular pharynx. The reproductive areas were located for testes, ovaries and yolk glands in specified areas.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN FEW ORGANS OF CHANNA STRIATUS (BLOCH) UNDER LINURON STRESS

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In the present work an attempt has been made to evaluate the toxic effect of Linuron (a weedicide) on histopathological changes in the intestine and liver of a freshwater fish, Channa striatus (Bloch) at sublethal concentrations (2.0-8.0ppm) for 20 days. Such treatment caused the changes in normal architural plan of both the small intestine and liver. The details have been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON OPERCULAR BEATINGS AND BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES UNDER ENDOTHAL AND TERBACIL STRESS IN HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS (BLOCH)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to assess the impact of herbicides (Endothal and Terbacil) on statistical relationship between concentrations of herbicides Vs. opercular beatings at two water temperatures (24.0°C±1.0°C and 30.5±1.0°C) and behavioural response in fresh water air breathing siluroid fish, Heteropneustes fossils (Bloch). The behavioural response of the fish towards toxicants were grossly dependent on concentration and length of exposure of herbicides. The mean opercular movements (beatings) decreased with the increasing concentrations of both the herbicides. After such treatment loss of balance, irratic swimming, secretion of copious amount of mucous and loss of pigmentation etc were clearly marked out. The details have been discussed in this paper.

BIOPESTICIDE, AZADIRACHTIN INDUCED HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN THE INTESTINE OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) (TELEOSTEI: CLARIIDAE)

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Azadirachtin, a biopesticide derived from neem (Azadirachta indica) is used to control a wide variety of insect pests of agricultural and medical importance. The tissues of Clarias gariepinus intestine was exposed to a sublethal concentration of 0.247ppm azadirachtin for a duration of 5, 10 and 15 days. The histological investigations was found to be highly toxic and the histological alterations increased with increase in duration. The histopathological alterations in the treated intestine tissues exhibited microviffi necrosis, eroded submucosal layer, binucleated cell, enlarged lumen cell, multinucleated necrotic cell, fusion of viffi and mucosal layer, rupture of villi epithelial cells, vacuolization and necrosis. All these histopathological observations indicated that exposure to sublethal concentrations of azadirachtin caused destructive effect in the intestinal tissues of Clarias gariepinus.

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS ON IMPAIRMENT OF HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN A TELEOSTAN FISH, HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS (BLOCH)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of an organophosphate pesticide, Metasystox on different haematological parameters in an air breathing siluroid fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Treatment of sublethal concentration (4.50ppm) of Metasystox for 96hrs caused significant decrease in RBC counts, Hb content and PCV as compared to control. The total leucocyte counts (TLC) showed rising trend in lower concentration of Metasystox as compared to control but higher concentrations presented an opposite trend i.e decrease in TLC. However, Lymphocytes and Monocytes showed significant increase in their percentage in Metasystox treated animals. The effects were dose dependent. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.

EVALUATION OF GENOTOXIC AND CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF BENDIOCARB IN BONE MARROW OF CALOTES VERSICOLOR

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In this study, genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Bendiocarb were evaluated in the bone marrow of Calotes versicolor, a reptilian model, using chromosomal aberration assay, micronucleus assay and mitotic index. Adult male garden lizards were acclimatized for one week in the laboratory and then injected intraperitoneally with a daily dose of 5.3 mg/kg body weight (1/3rd LD50) of Bendiocarb. Frequencies of CA in the form of gaps increased significantly (1,3 0.005) after 14th day of treatment. Breaks, deletions and additions were increased significantly (P 0.05) after 21st day. MN frequencies increased significantly (1:3 0.05) after 14th day. No significant change in frequencies of MI was observed till 14th day. However, after 21st day MI frequencies decreased significantly (0.05) in the treated group. This study thus, reveals that bendiocarb induces genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in a time dependent manner in the bone marrow cells of Calotes versicolor. The study also reveals the sensitivity of CA, MN and MI as significant bioassay for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessment.

EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF FRESH WATER FISH, MACROGNATHUS ACULEATUM (BLOCH)

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The effect of sublethal concentration of an organochlorine pesticide, Kelthane E.C. (5.1 8ppm) and an organophosphate pesticide, Parathion (10.0ppm) on oxygen consumptioni in a fresh water mud eel, Macrognathus aculeatum (Bloch) were studied at various periods of exposures. The rate of the oxygen consumption (ml/hr) increased significantly during the first 36-hrs exposure which later on decreased gradually in Kelthane exposure. Parathion significantly decreased the oxygen consumption during different period of exposure. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.

IN-VITRO HAEMOLYTIC ACTIVITYOF ALOEVERA

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The medicinal plants contain various chemical compounds which affect and alter the membrane of human Erythrocytes. In the present study, the comparative in-vitro haemolytic activity of various extracts of Aloevera has been evaluated. The Methanolic (AVM), Ethylacetate (AVE), Chloroform (AVC) & Benzene (AVB) was assayed on human Erythrocytes with different concentration. The various extracts of Aloeverawas tested on human Erythrocytes for haemolytic activity with expose of increasing concentration of Aloevera. The expose concentration was 0- 600pg. The result show that Aloevera has no haemolytic activity at these concentrations.

EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA ON PROMASTIGOTE FORM OF LEISHMANIA DONOVAN!

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In the present study, anti-leishmanial activity of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia has been evaluated. The aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia inhibit the growth of promastigote form of Leishmania donovani . Berber in present in Tinospora cordifolia may be responsible for inhibition of growth of promastigote of Leishmania donovani. The aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia showed anti leishmanial activity and it was found that LC„ of 300 pg/ml i-e 50% inhibition at 300 pg/ml& LC. of 400 pg/ml i-e. complete inhibition at400 pg/ml.

METACID INDUCED ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS ON CERTAIN BLOOD PARAMETERS IN MYSTUS VITTATUS (BLOCH.)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of an organophosphate pesticide, Metacid-50 on different blood parameters in an air breathing siluroid fish Mystus vittatus (Bloch). Treatment of acute sublethal concentration of Metacid (96hrs exposure) caused significant decrease in RBC counts, Hb content and PCV values as compared to control. The TLC showed rising trend in lower concentration of Metacid as compared to control but in higher concentration it (TLC) showed an opposite trend i.e. decline in TLC. However, Lymphocytes and Monocytes showed significant increase in their percentage. The effects were dose dependent. The reason for such changes have been discussed in detail.

STUDIES ON ZOOPLANKTON POPULATION IN RANCH! LAKE DURING SUMMER AND RAINY SEASONS

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The present work was carried out during summer and rainy period on Ranchi Lake. Qualitative analysis Zooplankton population of the lake indicates occurrence of 20 species during both summer and rainy seasons. The major groups of Zooplankton in descending order are Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera, and Ostracoda. Higher density of Zooplankton population was noted during rainy season. Among the 19 Zooplanktonic species, 4 form Protozoa, 5 from Rotifera, 4 from Cladocera and 3 each from Ostracoda and Copepoda have been recorded. Simultaneously physico-chemical parameters such as both atmospheric and surface temperature, transparency, pH, CO2, and DO values were recorded. All the values of physico­chemical parameters showed slight variations during the summer and rainy seasons.

ANALYSIS OF DNA CONTENT IN CATLA CATLA (HAMILTON, 1822) COLLECTED FROM THREE DIFFERENT SITES OF WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA

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The present study was conducted on DNA extraction and determination of DNA quantity of both male and female of Catla catla using Nanophotometer. The fishes were divided into three different groups (group I, group II, group Ill) and fishes of group I were collected from the water bodies of Bijnor district, group 11 from district Hapur and group Ill from KilaParikshit Garh (District Meerut), of Western Uttar Pradesh of India. DNA was isolated by using the method of Ruzzante et. al., (1996) with minor modifications. Gel electrophoresis was carried out and extracted DNA was analyzed using nanospectrophotometer (Nanophotometer P330; Implen, Germany) to determine the quantity of DNA and its purity level. DNA extraction was done and extracted DNA was analyzed using nanophotometer to determine the concentration of DNA and its purity level. The value of DNA concentration in group r female of Catla catla was between 62 and 68 ng/pl and of male was between range of 71- 78 ng/pl. The value of DNA concentration in group if d female of Catla catla was 62 and 65 ng/pl and of male 77- 80 ng/pl. Highest DNA concentration was seen in group lir, in females the concentration was between 78-84 ng/pl and in case of males value was between 88-94 ng/pl.