HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LIVER OF HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS EXPOSED TO PENTACHLOROROPHENOL (PCP)

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 Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are the substances which change the course of endocrine systems in a way that adversely affects the organism itself or its progeny. EDCs call for greater attention because of their increasing utility in daily products and possible correlation with compromised health.It has been reported that PCP is the most important degradation products of phenolic compounds due of its enhanced resistance towards biodegradation. Effect of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the histology of Liver of a fresh water Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis was studied by exposing the fish to 32ìg/l/day (1/10 of LC ) of sub lethal 50 concentration of PCPfor a period of 14 and 28 days. Histopathological changes observed in liver was vacuolization, necrosis, rupturing of hepatocytes th th during different time of exposure i.e., 14 and 28 days. In our present study PCP(32ìg/l/day) showed an adverse impact on liver of fresh water Catfish H. fossilis.

STUDY ON MEDIAN NEUROSECRETORY PATH WAY AND NERVI CORPORIS CARDIACI INTERNI IN NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM OF COPULATING FEMALE SPILOSTETHUS PANDURUS (SCOPALI)

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 Two groups of 4-6 cells are observed on the dorsal side of pars intercerebralis medialis part of protocerebrum. These cells are designated as median neurosectetory cells (MNSC). The axons of median neurosecretory cells of locus 1 form the median neurosecretory pathway and nervi corporis cardiaci interni (NCCI).The NCCI of two sides decussate each other in the anterior dorsal median part of the protocerebrum, comes out from the brain and enter the aorta wall. The median neurosecretory pathways can be differentiated into two parts viz. the very short prechiasmatic and the long postchiasmatic portions in copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, a heteropteran insect of economic importance.

STUDY OF THE NUTRITION AND FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF THE HEMIPTERANS ON LESS PREFERRED PLANT FOOD SOURCES.

Hemiptera, Pentatomidae,Polyphagous.

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 Two groups of 4-6 cells are observed on the dorsal side of pars intercerebralis medialis part of protocerebrum. These cells are designated as median neurosectetory cells (MNSC). The axons of median neurosecretory cells of locus 1 form the median neurosecretory pathway and nervi corporis cardiaci interni (NCCI).The NCCI of two sides decussate each other in the anterior dorsal median part of the protocerebrum, comes out from the brain and enter the aorta wall. The median neurosecretory pathways can be differentiated into two parts viz. the very short prechiasmatic and the long postchiasmatic portions in copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, a heteropteran insect of economic importance.

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF METAL CONTAMINATION ON THE POPULATION OF THE BEETLE, PTEROSTICHUS OBLONGOPUNCTATUS F.

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 The negative effect of metals in terrestrial ecosystems has been shown so far little decomposition process and some soil-dwelling invertebrates. Organisms inhabiting contaminated areas can be stressed by metal exposure for a prolonged time and are possibly subjected to selection for increased resistance to metals. This may result in physiological or behavioural adaptations to long term sub-lethal metal exposure. The aim of the present study is to determine effects of prolonged metal contamination on population parameters, especially reproduction, in the forest living ground beetle, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus F. from five study sites with different metal pollution. The observed decrease in the reproductive rate in carabids originating form highly contaminated areas seems to support the hypothesis of a trade-off between efficient decontamination and productivity

THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SOMATIC CHROMOSOMES OF FRESH WATER CATFISH HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS BY NUCLEAR ORGANIZING REGION (NOR) AND G BANDING

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 Numerous procedures are now available for identifying chromosomes. Karyotypes are being prepared for clinical and research purposes. Although the ability to analyse the chromosome depends on size, but much depends on how well they are fixed, spread and stained. The NOR bands of the chromosomes are obtained from silver stain which represent the chromosomal sites of the 18s and 28s ribosomal R.N.A., genes which presumably were actively transcripted at a preceding interphase. G banding patterns revealed that transverse bands on them were visible after pretreatment of chromosomes with trypsin enzyme before staining with Giemsa. Generally G banding corresponds to the late replicating region of the genome which contains relatively few active genes. The present paper discusses the main technical aspects of NOR and G Banding in experimental fresh water teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis which can assist in the diagnosis of genotypic aberration due to unwanted environmental changes.

A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VOLUME OF AIR-BLADDER AND BODY VOLUME IN LOCALLY AVAILABLE FISH POPULATION

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 Fish are the most numerous group of vertebrates in the world. This article is aimed to present the volumetric study of air-bladder in a local fish- Bata, scientifically known as Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822). The study was performed by anatomical dissection of184 fishes of Bata species with further macroscopic examination of air-bladders. The research showed that in investigated species this organ has significant differences and is composed of two chambers. The present study assesses air-bladder dynamics in natural occurring populations with the aim to examine volumetric relationship between air-bladder and body of the individuals. It is clear that the buoyancy provided by the air-bladder. Air-bladder volume is a mean 9.4% of fishbody volume. Evidence is given to indicate that this is quite large when compared with data ‘5% of fish volume for marine fish, and 7% for freshwater fish.

ACUTE TOXICITY OF TRIVALENT AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TO CLIMBING PERCH, ANABAS TESTUDIENUS

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 Chromium is highly toxic to both aquatic and soil environment. Aim of the present study was to determine acute effect of chromium trivalent (Cr- III) and hexavalent (Cr-VI) toxicity on climbing perch, Anabas testudienus (Bloch). The work was done using Finney’s Probit analysis method. The 96hr-LC of 50 Cr- III and Cr-VI was determined to be 305.0 and 39.0 mg/l by experimental fishes were exposed in different concentrations. The LC dose was more in Cr(III) in comparison to Cr(VI) as the difference was highly 50 significant. The work showed that acute chromium toxicity is severely affects the fundamental organs which are harmful to fishes in aquatic ecosystem. There is need to control the usage of chromium especially Cr-VI because of its observed toxicity level as Cr(VI) is more dangerous to aquatic organisms that Cr(III).

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE POPULATION DENSITY OF AQUATIC INSECTS

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 The population growth of Cybister confusus, an aquatic insect in a pond was studied with emphasis on water temperature. Population of the Cybister confusus was examined in relation to temperature. This measure accounts for time and the minimum temperature necessary for insect growth and reproduction to enhance population size. Result showed highest population density at about 17.6 °C temperature. Studies demonstrated that the population of insects is directly proportional to change in seasonal temperature cycle.

IN-VITRO HAEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS (METHANOLIC,ETHYLACETATE,CHLOROFORM AND BENZENE) OF SWERTIA CHIRATA ON HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES (RBCs)

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 The medicinal plants contain so many chemical compounds which has toxic effect on human Erythrocytes(RBCs).In the present study, the comparative In vitro haemolytic activity of different extracts of Swertia chirata has been evaluated. The Methanolic (SCM), Ethylacetate (SCE), chloroform (SCC) & Benzene (SCB)extract was assayed on human Erythrocytes with different concentration. The different extracts of Swertia chirata was tested on human erythrocytes for hemolytic activity with exposure of increasing concentration . The exposed concentration was 0- 300 µg. The result shows that the different extracts of Swertia chirata has no effect on human erythrocytes (RBCs)at 0- 300 µg.

FOOD UTILIZATION AND ENERGY BUDGET OF CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNAEUS 1758 FED ON PLANT AND ANIMAL DIET

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 Cyprinus carpio was fed on different types of plant and animal feed to study its food utilization and energy budget. Amongst the plant diet, the rate of maximum consumption, absorption and metabolization of food was recorded in Vicia faba (5.31 ±1.20; 2.76 ±2.70 and 2.56 ±0.15) respectively. Maximum food conversion rate was noted in Amaranthus spinosus (0.30 ±0.03). Whereas in animal diet, it was egg white (9.66 ±0.90; 7.22 ±1.02 and 7.21 ±0.08) respectively. Maximum food conversion rate was observed in Brassica oleracea (1.00 ±0.21) with respect to overall energy budget. With reference to the overall energy budget in relation to weight and time, maximum consumption in Vicia faba (0.17 ±0.04), absorption in Brassica oleracea (0.65 ±0.07), metabolization and conversion of food in Amaranthus spinosus (0.56 ±0.00 and 0.01 ±0.00) was observed among the plant diet. Whereas in animal diet, maximum consumption, absorption and metabolization of food was noted in egg white (0.32 ±0.03; 0.24 ±0.03 and 0.24 ±0.00 respectively) and conversion rate in bloodworm (0.03 ±0.00). Egg white provided the maximum overall energy budget. Studies of such sort are essential as it portrays the bioenergetics schemes in Cyprinus carpio.

PHYLOGENY OF INDIAN CATFISHES INFERRED FROM MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME B SEQUENCES

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 Catfishes globally find importance due to high demand as human food, angling sport and aquariums purpose. In India, catfishes are found in abundance and are equally exploited through decades. In this study, five families viz. Sisoridae, Siluridae, Clariidae, Bagridae and Heteropneustidae representing 6 genera, 16 species were subjected to phylogenetic analyses of sequence data for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. The pairwise genetic distance among catfishes based on cytochrome b was found maximum between Mystus bleekeri and Clarias magur (28.5%), minimum between Glyptothorax ventrolineatus and Glyptothorax granules (5.2 %) and overall mean genetic distance among cat fishes for cytochrome b was 0.208 via composite maximum likelihood method. The overall Conserved site, Variable site, Parsim-info site and Singleton site of Cytochrome b gene in cat fish species were found 265/479, 214/479, 168/479 and 46/479. The genus of family Siluridae, Clariidae, Sisoridae respectively formed separate monophyletic clade in phylogenetic tree. Clariidae and Heteropneustidae species found in a same clade which shows that it has some evolutionary relationship. The evolutionary history of family Sisoridae, Siluridae, Clariidae, and Heteropneustidae will provide the foundation to understand the origin and diversification of most of the species of catfish in India.

NEMATODE COMMUNITY DYNAMICS OF THREE DIFFERENT ALTITUDES IN NATURAL FOREST REGIONS OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH, INDIA

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 Studies were carried out in natural forest region of Arunachal Pradesh. Three habitats differing in altitude, soil type, forest type, average annual temperature. 1. Itanagar is mountainous, forming part of eastern Himalayas with altitude 400-500 MSL. It is the land of lush green tropical evergreen forest and beautiful plateau. 2. Tirap is situated in a peculiar geographical setting with the altitude 1200-1300 MSL, the vegetation of the district largely consist of tropical and subtropical evergreen forest with rich and varied fauna. The topography is largely influenced by the terrain marked by high hills, deep ravines and valleys through which the stream and rivers flow. 3. Tawang district falls under higher Himalayan Agroclimatic subregion (Alpine), which experiences snowfall. Remaining portion of the district represents sloping mountains of lesser himalayan range which experience a cool and pleasant climate. The samples were mainly collected from lacer lesser Himalayan range with the altitude 3000-3500 MSL. One hundred and three genera belonging to 33 families were recorded from studied material. Total number of nematodes in investigated sites ranges from 1105-14782 x10³ind/ m². The number of families that involved genera determined in particular sites was ranging from 26-33. Shannon Index of diversity for genera was lowest in Itanagar followed by Tawang and Tirap sector. Nematode communities dwelling particular sites differ in structure and composition. Acalculation for mean abundance and percent share of each nematodes genus in three regions showed that, in Itanagar, the genus Axonchium was eudominant and Helicotylenchus, Iotonchus and Dorylaimoides were dominant genera. In Tirap, no eudominant genus was found with Axonchium, Eucephalobus, Helicotylenchus and Dorylaimoides as dominant genera, while in Tawang Dorylaimellus, Ironus, Helicotylenchus, Axonchium, and Actinolaimus were the dominant genera with no eudominant genus recorded. In all the three regions, the genera Axonchium and Helicotylenchus were the dominant groups. Sørensen’s index calculated for pairs of analyzed sites was relatively higher with Itanagar –Tirap 68%, Tirap – Tawang 60% and Itanagar –Tawang 60% respectively. 30 % (31 genera) of genera were common to three regions

BIOREDUCTION POTENTIAL OF FICUS ELASTIC RUBRA AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FOR SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES

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 Use of plants in synthesis of nanoparticles is quite novel approach leading to ‘green chemistry’. This green chemistry has many advantages such as, process scaling up, economic viability and safe way to produce nanoparticles. Now the study focused on the production, characterization, physical parameters and antimicrobial studies of silver nanoparticles using Ficus elastic rubra leaf extract under ambient conditions. In the present study, a broad peak appeared at 430nm, which indicates the uniform distribution and poly dispersion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) rose from the extract of Leaf concoction of Ficus elastic rubra. It serves as a potent antimicrobial agent against E.coli, Corynebacterium, S.aureus and P.aeruginosa exhibiting significant Pharmacological activity when compared to standard Drug Ciprofloxacin. In futureFicus elastic rubra nanoparticles may gain wide applications in medicine. 

EFFECT OF DAUCUS CAROTA SEED EXTRACT ON SPERM CHARACTERISTICS AND TESTIS HISTOLOGY IN MALE ALBINO RAT!

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 In the present study seeds of Daucus carota commonly known as wild carrot were evaluated for its effect on Sperm characteristics and testis histology in male albino rats. The Daucus carota seed extract (DCSE) was orally administered at dose of 200 and 400mg/kg b.w for 90 days after which body weight and reproductive organs weight, spermatozoa characteristic, histological changes in the testis were observed. The result revealed significant decrease (P<0.001) in weight of primary and secondary reproductive organ. Remarkable changes like vacuolization and degeneration of seminiferous tubules were observed in the testis of the rats treated with high dose. The treatment also caused significant (P<0.001) decrease in sperm motility, sperm count. Large numbers of sperms were found to be morphologically divested. The results from the present study suggest that seed extract of Daucus carota possess the potential to adverse affect on testicular function in rats.

EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS IN MILK SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES: AN EMPHASIS ON HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

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 Toxic heavy metals enter the food chain and animal’s body through the contaminated food and water. Hence milk a well-balanced diet, an ideal source of nutrients can also contain chemical hazards and contaminants. Heavy metal residues in milk are of particular concern because they are largely consumed by newborn and children. The present investigation reported the presence of some heavy metals and pesticides in different milk samples but within the permissible limit.