It is a well known fact that blood parameters act as reliable indicators of fish health. In present studies, we have focused on hematological profile of different fish species. Haematological changes i.e. shape change of erythrocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes etc. are well known for their clinical value in prognosis and diagnosis. As hematopoiesis between fish and mammals is highly conserved, the fish can, thus, serve as an attractive model to study hematological changes in response to external environment stressors. Thus, the study of piscian haematological indices can not only be effectively used in fish health management but also in formulating mitigation measures against aquatic pollutants as well.
In the brain of pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, Locus-3 has lateral neurosecretory cells which are observed in two groups, each of 2-4 cells arranged symmetrically on either side of locus-3. The axons of lateral neurosecretory cells (LNSC) form the lateral neurosecretory pathway and nervi corporis cardiaci externi (NCC II). The axons of LNSC run directly and do no decussate in the brain and come out independently through the ventral surface of protocerebrum as short paired NCC II. The NCC II of each side innervates the corpus cardiacum of its same side in the female Spilostethus pandurus.
In the present work an attempt has been made to study some aspects of bioenergetic modelling with special reference to the assessment of maintenance energy expenditure and energy value in growth materials in a teleostean fish, Channa gachua (Ham.). Over all maintenance energy expenditure in this fish ranged from 62.3% or 1522.5 Joules (J) in 16.3g fish to a value of 64% or 17094.4J (in 104.0g fish). The energy value utilized for growth/production (P) ranged from 37.7% or 917.5J (in 16.3g fish) to a value of 36.0% or 9615.6J (in 104.0g fish) of the total energy available in food (C). The details have been discussed in this paper.
Physico-chemical status of Kamla dhar of Katihar (Kosi zone) were investigated during March 2015 to April 2016. The result revealed well defined seasonal variation. Relatively high temperature, high value of dissolved oxygen and highest production range of alkalinity were observed which are favorable factors for the production of air breathing fishes. On the basis of present study, parameters the river water appears to be of moderate trophic level. On the whole river is getting pollute due to intense human activities and influence infusion of foreign materials from the surroundings. These materials mainly comprise of decomposable organic matters of plants and animals, terrestrial washing and effluents.
Blood pressure is one of the most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease. But the percentage of treated patients had their BP under control is not satisfactory. Utilization of ACE inhibitors is one of the important strategies for maintenance of BP. T cordifolia leaf extract was analyzed to find a new ACE regulatory compound in in-vitro. Among the extracted compounds, 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid showed highest affinity towards the enzyme and can be used as a potent ACE regulatory compound to manage BP The results of this experiment clearly indicate that the plant extract activates the ACE activity in in-vitro condition.
The silk dyeing effluents waste is one of the most potential harmful chemical liberated in the environment in an unexpected manner, associated with several reproductive, hepatic and renal problems that damages both functionally and structurally. The present study was undertaken to investigate of the toxic effects of the silk dye waste on kidneys of swiss albino mice, (Mus musculus). Five set of experimental animals including control (mice) were treated orally intragastrically and effects was observed at different concentration of silk dye effluent waste i.e. 25% 50 % 75 % and 100% in different time response (15th, 30th, 45th and 60th days). The assimilation of dyeing effluent in body system was supported by biochemical variables. The kidney section showed progressive damage which increased with the duration of exposure period than increase in effluent concentration. Renal histopathological study revealed that experimental mice suffer from severe renal injury. Microscopic histopathological examination of haematoxylin-eosin stained kidney section showed chronic toxicological changes. Some changes includes glomerular degeneration, tubular collapse, haemorrhage, hydropic changes, glomerular shrinkage, infiltration and compressed blood vessel. The findings indicated that silk dye effluent because a marked alteration in renal profile and their effect became more risky at higher dose. The present investigation may be a valuable step in the toxicity assessment of silk dye effluent in swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).
Aquatic macroinvertebrates, which play a significant role in the food chain of an ecosystem, are used in freshwater quality assessment to identify the environmental stress resulting from a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Samples survey of macroinvertebrate communities were conducted from April 2016 to March 2017 in ox-bow wetland (Kawar lake) of Begusarai district (Bihar). Altogether 74 species (7 species of Annelida, 56 species of Arthropods and 11 species of Mollusca) of macroinvertebrates were recorded from the studied sites during the investigation. In present paper we analyse the qualitative and quantitative abundance of macroinvertebrates (annelids, insects and molluscs) of Kawar lake ecosystem.
In the Maithan dam, the Zooplanktons were represented by the Crustaceae( Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda ), Rotifera& Protozoa. The Rotifera is the dominating group followed by Copepoda and then Cladocera. The invertebrates which live on, in or near the substratum of the dam water include representatives of almost every taxonomical group that occurs in fresh water. Rotifera was the abundant group representing 62% of total species, followed by Copepoda 28% and Cladocera 8%. The dominant Zooplanktons recorded in the dam were Filinia sp., Branchionus sp., Asplanchna sp. Abundance of these species indicates that the dam has become eutrophic.
The terrestrial insects are exposed to extreme variations in temperature and moisture than their counterparts in the aquatic ecosystem. The Beetles have certain requirements having specific physiological significance. Being cold blooded, two main characteristics of their population viz. death rate and birth rate are very much dependent on the physico-chemical factors of the soil. Beetle infestations have increased in magnitude and severity as a result of warming temperatures.
The present study is aimed to document the feeding habits of Indian House Crow Corvus splendens in the urban ecosystem of Kolkata. House Crow is widely distributed in India and can be found almost everywhere where man lives except Himalayas. Cities like Kolkata attracts huge number of crows due to production of excess refuse and leftover foods and availability of suitable roosting and nesting sites are additional attractions for this bird. Being an omnivorous feeder crows eats almost everything that can be eaten, and they are highly adaptive towards the urban environment. They are very much efficient in utilizing the urban resources for their feeding purposes. Fourteen different feeding sites were selected for this study within the city limits and were classified into three broad category i.e. residential area, commercial area and public parks. Mmaximum crow count were recorded from residential area (790 crows) followed by commercial (520) and public area (490). Availability of good quality and quantity of food and ease of getting food may be the reason for such high number of House Crow count in residential area.
The present morphometric analysis represented the actual scientific length-weight relationships (LWRs) for commercially important five fish species namely Salmostoma bacaila, Setipinna phasa, Polynemus paradiseus, Silonia silondia, Chelon parsia from Rupnarayan River in South West Bengal, India. Samples were collected from different fishing centre at Rupnarayan River basin on regular mode of quarterly interval from the year August 2016 to January 2018. LWRs parameters likewise intercept (a ), slope (b) from the formula W= a TLb have been calculated out of total 1190 individual sample under five families. Thus, the LWR parameter b value ranged from 2.89 to 3.13 whereas regression coefficients (r2) range confined within 0.95% to 0.98%. Hence, the current assessment may help concerned to researchers and policy makers for sustainable management and conservation aspects of these commercial fishes available in Rupnarayan River, West Bengal, India.
Six different supplementary feeds (Mostly agricultural wastes) have been tested to assess the effectiveness on growth of Labeo rohita (Ham.). The experiment was continued for 100 days in cemented tanks. The daily average weight increment for individual (g/fish/day) fish was 0.762 with rice bran + ground nut oild cake + poultry droppings (1:2:1); 0.478 with goat gut content; 0.453 with poultry droppings + its gut wall (1:1); 0.391 with rice bran + mustard oil cake (1:1); 0.310 with boiled (spoiled) egg + wheat bran (1:2) and 0.108 in control. The merits and demerits of different feeds have been discussed in this paper.
The effect of sublethal doses (0.75 and 0.85 mg/I) of a weedicide, Choloroxuron for 20 days treatment on impairment of kidney has been studied in a freshwater teleostean fish, Mystus tengara (Ham.) Chloroxuron intoxication caused – a reduction in haemopoetic tissues, lumen of the tubule became wide, ground tissue of the kidney looked like a spongy body; different tubules were seen in shrunken condition; distruction in renal tissue and lumen of the tubules were obliterated, space developed in the interestial haemopoetic tissue due to necrosis. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Studies on energy budget in relation to various dietary conditions were made in an air breathing fish, Channa striatus (BL.). The feeds used were-poultry gut content + goat liver (Group A), blood clot or meal (B), Poultary droppings + Rice bran (C) and goat gut content (Group D). Food efficiency (%) ranged from 11.50 -48.4%. Daily individual growth increment (g/fish/day) ranged from 0.117 (Group A) to 0.501 (Group D). The details have been discussed in this paper.
The present paper deals with the statistical relationship between body weight (g) Vs. total gill diffusing capacity per unit time (mlOiminImmHg) and per unit body weight (m102/min/mm/kg) in a hill stream fish, Garra gotyla (Gray). In this fish total diffusing capacity per unit time (m102/min/mm/Hg) showed increasing trend with the increase in body with a slope (b value) of 0.872 while diffusing capacity per unit body weight (m102/mm/mmHg/kg) decrease with the increase in body weight with a slope (b value) of -0.130. The correlation coefficient (r value) were very high. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Studies on sublethal concentration of Carbofuran (a carbamate pesticde) and Ekalux EC 25 (an organophosphate pesticide) on changes in some haemato-biochemical parameters in an air breathing fish, Channa striatus (Bloch) were made. In control group of fishes, the values of blood glucose, plasma protein and blood urea were 68.92±1.23; 4.92±0.36 and 29.32±1.3 mg/100m1 of blood respectively. The exposure of fishes to sublethal concentrations of both the pesticides for 96 hrs caused significant increase in blood glucose and blood urea but significant decrease in plasma protein. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper
Studies on relative energy budget in different weight groups in a fresh water siluroid fish, Mystus cavasius (Ham.) has been made at water temperature 30.0±1.0°C. The total energy available in feed (C)/day/fish ranged from 2192.4 Joules (in 12.2g fish) to a value of 26989.2J (in 102.0g fish). The percent energy value ranged from 12.3-13.6, 7 (fixed), 35.2-36.8, 36.0-43.3 and 0.6-8.2% respectively in faeces (F), Urine formation (U), growth (P), respiratory metabolism (R) and miscellaneous activities (M.A.). The details have been discussed in this paper.
Studies on the effect of Nuvan (Dichlorvos 76% EC-an organophosphate pesticide) on changes in certain haematological values were made in a fresh water air breathing climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). The control level of different haematological values in the blood of this fish such as- RBC counts, Hb content, PCV, MCH, MCV, MCHC, ESR, CT and leucocyte (WBC) counts were respectively 3.46±0.07 (million/mm3), 11.7±0.12g%, 46.8±2.43%, 32.94pg, 135.26pm3, 24.675%, 2.9mm/h, 24.35±0.023 and 4.6±0.67 104/mm3. The acute exposure (96 hrs) of Nuvan at sublethal dose (15 mg/I) caused reduction in RBC counts, Hb content, PCV, MCH, MCV, ESR and WBC counts and an increase in the values of MCHC CT, small lymphocytes and Neutrophil % as compared to control. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.
In the present work an attempt has been made to evaluate the toxic effect of Furadan (a carbamate pesticide) on histopathological and histochemical changes in the intestine of a fresh water mud eel, Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch) at sublethal concentrations (0.6, 0.80 and 0.90 ppm) for 10 and 20 days expsoures. Such treatment caused the changes in normal architectural plan of intestine. The orientation of villi was disturbed and villi were disorganised, reduced, flattened and inflated at the base. The villi tips were ruptured leading to the exudation of mucous in the lumen. The lamina propria became fibrous and odema appeared in it. The concentration of the mucosal cells with underlying connective tissue was severed making the mucosa to hand freely into the lumen. Other changes noticed were autolysis of submucosa, highly broken and ruptured villi, histolysis of columnar cells, lymphocytic infilteration and also the hyper activity of mucous cells were obvious. With the use of certain stains such as PAS, Bromophenol blue and Best carmine etc, changes in intensity of stains for carbohydrate, protein and glycogen test have been studied in control and Furadan intoxicated fishes. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Mastacembelus armatus (Lac) has bimodal gas exchange mechanism as the fish uses both the gills and skin to obtain 02 from water. The skin can obtain 02 both from water as well as air. 02 consumption in this mud eel have been determined by the method as followed by Kumar and Ahsan (2018) at the water temperature 20.0±1.0°C (winter) and 30.0±1.0°C (Summer). The statistical relationship between 02 consumption (V02) vs. body weight during winter (20.0±1.0°C) and summer (30.0±1.0°C) months are represented by the equation :- V02 (ml/hr) = 0.1397.14/97286 and V02 (ml/hr) = 0.219514r1° respectively. The details have been discussed in this paper in the light of thermal compensatory metabolic regulation in this fish.