STUDIES ON SOME ASPECTS OF BIOENERGETICS IN A TELEOSTEAN FISH IN CHANNA STRIATUS (BLOCH) : ENERGY VALUE OF METABOLISM (RESPIRATION)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study energy value of metabolism (respiration or oxygen consumption) in a fresh water teleostean fish, Channa striatus (Bloch) at water temperature 29.5±1.00C. The energy value of total metabolism (R) ranged from 723.1-10390.3 Joule/day/fish within the weight range 9.3 to 103.0 gram fish. The percentage of total energy of food (C) used in the metabolism (R) ranged from 36.0-40.7% with a clear trend of decrease in R value with increasing body weight. The details have been discussed in this paper.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED IN THE LIVER OF MYSTUS TENGARA (HAM.) AFTER EXPOSURE TO CHLOROXURON

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of Chloroxuron (a weedicide) on histopathological changes in the liver of a fresh water teleostean fish, Mystus tengara (Ham.) at sublethal concentrations (0.75 and 0.85 ppm) for 10 and 20 days. After such treatment the liver showed disintegration of hepatic cells, separation of the hepatic cells from the blood vessels and proliferation in the pancreatic tissues with broken blood vessels and atrophy in the nucleus of hepatic cells with broken hepatic cells as compared to control. The details have been discussed in this paper.

CARBOFURAN INDUCED IMPAIRMENT IN HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES IN CHANNA STRIATUS (BLOCH)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study the acute and chronic exposure of a carbamate pesticide, carbofuran on different haematological parameters in an air breathing fish Channa striatus (Bloch). Treatment of sublethal concentration (0.80 mg/I) of carbofuran caused an early increase in RBC count, Hb content and MCHC and decrease in PCV, MCV, MCH and ESR i.e. upto 96 hrs but after 10 days RBC count increased being normal on 30 days. MCV, MCH, MCHC and ESR showed decreasing trend. Recovery studies were also conducted. The details have been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON FUNCTIONAL EFFICACY OF THE GILLS OF A HILL STREAM FISH, GARRA GOTYLA (GRAY)

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This papers deals with oxygen uptake capacity of gills in relation to body weight in a hill stream fish, Garra gotyla (Gray). It was found that oxygen consumption (VO2) increases with the increase in body weight while V02/g/h decreases with the increase in body weight of the fish. The details have been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON SOME ASPECTS OF ENERGY BUDGET IN AN AIR BREATHING FISH, MYSTUS CAVASIUS (HAM.) : DAILY FOOD INTAKE AND FAECAL PRODUCTION

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Studies on daily food intake, energy value of ration, total faecal discharge, energy value of faeces and excretory product (U) have been made in different weight groups of an air breathing catfish, Mystus cavasius (Ham.). The above parameters ranged from 0.58-7.14 glfish/day, 2192.4 – 26989.2 joules, 0.071­0.791 g/day/dry wt, 269.66 to 3670.53 joules and 152.07-1889.24 joules respectively within the weight range 12.2 to 102.0g. The details have been discussed in this paper.

FOOD AND FEEDING HABIT OF CIRRHINA MRIGALA IN PONDS OF SIGHESHWAR MADHEPURA; BIHAR

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The gut content analysis provides the information on food components and feeding habit of fish which is an important aspect for fisheries management. In present study, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut content of Indian major carp Cirrhina mrigala from ponds of Sigheshwar, Madhepura; Bihar, were conducted during November 2012 to October 2013. The results on gut content shows that qualitative changes in food component were not found but quantitative changes were observed during the study period. In the gut of fish, food consists of aquatic plant parts (20.12%), phytoplankton (16.46%), zooplankton (19.69%), debris and detritus (22.00%), insects (6.78%) and semi-digested materials (14.83%). The finding suggests that this fish is more suitable for the pond rich in debris and detritus of plant origin.

MALATHION INDUCED CHANGES IN TOTAL PROTEIN AND PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN DIFFERENT TISSUES OF A FRESHWATER LEECH, HIRUDO BIRMANICA [BLANCHARD].

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Leeches are medicinally important, and are non-target organisms as far as the pestcontrol operations are concerned. Leeches become the victims of toxicity of various agrochemicals, pollutants etc. in the freshwater ecosystem, due to which their very existence is unnecessarily threatened. Changes in the protein fractions such as sarcoplasmic , contractile and stromal of skin (botryoidal tissue), anterior sucker and posterior sucker of the leech. Hirudo birmanica were studied after treatment with sublethal concentration of malathion (0.01ppm), for 24, 48 and 96 h. The values of the fractions are presented as mg% on the dry weight basis. Amongst the protein fractions in control leeches the contractile proteins were quantitatively more than sarcoplasmic and stromal proteins in all tissues. The protein fractions decreased progressively and significantly (p<0.05) in all tissues of leeches as the period of exposure to sublethal concentration of malathion increased. The results are discussed in the light of physiological response of leech to pesticidal stress.

AN OBSERVATIONAL NOTE ON CESTODE PARASITE IN FRESHWATER FISH PUNTIUS CONCHONIUS (HAMILTON) IN SOUTH BIHAR

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The fauna of cestodes are found both in marine and fresh water fishes of different part of our country. The species Puntius is one of the important freshwater fish with high nutritional value and market demand because of its relatively little bit lesser cost and abundance in the fish market. But due to parasitic infection it poses threat to fish cultivation, which is a valuable source of nutritional food and employment. In the present study the survey of IMC and quantification & incidence of the cestode parasite of fresh water fish in Puntius conchonius has become of high concern. These fishes were collected from local fish market Dumraon, Dist. Buxar, Bihar, during the month of January to February 2018. Out of 105 fishes specimens of P conchonius 10 were highly infected with adult cestode parasites. The encountered parasitic species includes Senga spp. & Circumoncobothrium spp.

AQUATIC INSECT BIODIVERSITY AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF THE BEKARBANDH POND OF DHANBAD DISTRICT. (JHARKHAND)

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Biodiversity of aquatic insect and physico-chemical water quality parameters in the Bekarbandh pond was assessed during June 2016 to May 2017. Seven sampling stations, each 100m long were established. Three replicates of samplings by aquatic D frame net were used at sampling sites. A total of 4,257 individual of aquatic insect were collected during one year. 6 orders & 12 families were recorded in this study. The family Hydropsychidae and Chironomidae were the most abundant of aquatic insects that was found in the pond water. The CCA revealed the family Mesoveliidae and Chironomidae were correlated with alkalinity in the pond water, whereas dissolved oxygen was correlated with family Baetidae, Coenagrionidae, Hydrophilidae and Helotrephidae. Signs of increasing water quality deterioration were evident in the result of the physico-chemical analyses.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN INTESTINE OF THE FRESHWATER TELEOST CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH) EXPOSED TO WATER SOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF PETROL AND DIESEL FUELS.

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This study reports histopatholgoical changes in the intestine of the fish Channa punctatus exposed for 30 days to sublethal doses of the water soluble fractions (WSF) of petrol (9.60 ml/L) and diesel (8.70 ml/L) fuels. WSF of petrol induced loss of normal architecture & orientation of villi which became shrunken and atrophied and exhibited interlocking arrangement. Besides, the hyperactive mucous secreting cells together with their nuclei became pyknosed and necrosed indicating signs of apoptosis. More severe nature of degenerative changes were observed under the toxicity of WSF of diesel. These were disintegrating serosa, very ill defined epithelial lining, almost structureless and detached core of mucosal fold as well as ruptured and broken villi leading to heavy exudation of mucus into the lumen. Possible explanations have been discussed and the findings led us to conclude that WSF of both petrol and diesel impair the absorptive capacity of the intestine.

LINDANE INDUCED SERUM LIPID PROFILE ALTERATION IN MALE WISTAR RATS: PROTECTIVE ROLE OF CURCUMIN

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The Present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of curcumin in terms of normalization of altered serum lipid profile in liver rats exposed to lindane. Liindane (30mg/kg bw) exposure significantly (p<0.001) increase the level of cholesterol (CHO), Triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and significantly (p<0.001) decreased High density lipoprotein (HDL)as compared to control. Pre, post-treatment, combination with curcumin (100mg/kg bw) ameliorated CHO, TG, VLDL, LDL level after lindane exposure. However, there was no change in HDL level in IV, V, VI as compared to exposed group. All parameters were metabolized after 14 days exposure to lindane except HDL.

PROTECTIVE INFLUENCE OF ZINC AND ASCORBIC ACID ON CADMIUM INDUCED NEPHROPATHY IN THE FRESHWATER CAT FISH HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS (BLOCH).

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This study reports the curative effects of zinc and ascorbic acid on cadmium induced histopathological changes in kidney of the freshwater cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis. Exposure of the fish to 16.14 mg/L sub lethal concentration of cadmium for 30 days induced hypertrophy of glomeruli, dilation and rupture of Bowman’s capsule and glomerular tuft, degeneration of epithelial cells lining the renal tubules, haemorrhage between tubules, hyaline degeneration of tubules, indistinct lumen, cytoplasmic vacuolation, accumulation of lipid droplets and generalized necrosis in kidney. However, 16.14 mg/L cadmium + 0.5 mg/L zinc and 16.14 mg/L cadmium + 1.25 mg/L ascorbic acid exposed fish groups revealed signs of recovery which were more progressive with ascorbic acid as evident from considerable restoration of normal size of Bowman’s capsule, structure of tubular epithelial cells and almost normal structure of renal corpuscles. Our study concludes that zinc and ascorbic acid have protective influence on cadmium toxicity in fish but higher doses than the one selected in the present case are probably needed to overcome the effects of cadmium toxicity.

SHRINKAGE OF AQUATIC HABITAT OF RANCH!: A CONSEQUENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING AND URBANIZATION

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The scientific explanation for shrinking of water body could be the change in climate. The present trend of global warming speeds up shrinkage of water area over the land, especially the reservoirs and lakes. The environment of it undergoes certain changes which have brought degradation as direct impact on the inhabitants and their economic activities. Many aquatic bodies of the world are facing the threat of shrinkage.

The present study attempts to explore the evidences that prove increase of temperature in Ranchi district (Jharkhand) during the last decades and degradation of aquatic environment with changes of its area covered.

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF AMBIENT WATER TEMPERATURE ON BIMODAL OXYGEN UPTAKE IN CHANNA MARULIUS (HAM.) SHAILENDRA KUMAR AND MD. WAQUAR AHSAN

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Studies on cyclic changes (for 12 months) in aquatic, aerial and total oxygen uptake in a fresh water air breathing fish, Channa marulius (Ham.) were made which showed wide range of variations in different months of the year. It ranged from a minimum value of 0.838, 0.283 and 1.121 m102/h in December to a maximum value of 2.888, 2.363 and 5.251 m102/h respectively in the month of June. Statistically significant correlation was observed between seasonal variations in oxygen uptake and seasonal changes in ambient water temperature but the points on a plot gave good fit to two regression lines, inflection at the meeting point of the two regression line was observed at 29.20C in this fish. The details have been discussed in this paper.

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN DIFFERENT WEIGHT GROUPS OF PUNTIUS SOPHORE (HAM.) AT HABITUAL WATER TEMPERATURE IN WINTER AND SUMMER MONTHS

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In the present work an attempt has been made to study oxygen consumption in different weight groups of a teleostean fish, Puntius sophore (Ham.) at habitual water temperature in winter and summer months to assess compensatory regulation in their metabolism to seasonal thermal variations. The experiments were conducted at 19.0±1.00C (winter) and 29.2±1.00C (summer months). Though at both the habitual temperatures, a clear trend of increase in total oxygen consumption with increasing body weight was observed but it increased with a value of 0.64 (b value or regression coefficient) in summer months while such value was recorded to be 0.80 (b value) in winter months indicating compensatory regulation in their metabolism to seasonal thermal variations. The details have been discussed in this paper.

TOXICITY AND BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES OF A FRESHWATER FISH, ANABAS TESTUDINEUS (BLOCH) UNDER NUVAN INTOXICATION

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The acute and sublethal toxicity of Nuvan (Dichlorvos 76% E.C. – an organophosphate pesticide) on a commercial freshwater air breathing climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) was evaluated under static bio-assay condition for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. The LC„ (TLm) values were computed to be 30.65, 27.85, 23.70 and 18.50 ppm at water temperature 29.0±1.0°C. The safe concentration value was calculated to be 6.90 ppm at this temperature. The behavioural response of fish towards the toxicant (Nuvan) was grossly dependent on concentration and length of exposure. The mean values of opercular movements (per minute) gradually decreased with the increasing concentration of Nuvan. The reason for such changes have been discussed in the present paper.

STUDIES ON METABOLIC RATE IN AN AIR BREATHING FISH, CHANNA MARULIUS (HAM)

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Studies of metabolic rate (bimodal oxygen uptake) have been studied in an air breathing fresh water fish, Channa marulius (Ham.). Aquatic, aerial and total oxygen uptake per unit time (m102/h) in Channa marulius ranged from 0.963 to 5.213, 0.666 to 3.313 and 1.623 to 8.526 respectively within the weight range 9.52 to 95.0g. Statistical analysis of the data reveals that with unit increased in body weight, aquatic, aerial and total oxygen uptake in this fish increased by a fractional power of 0.8309, 0.7229 and 0.7737 respectively. Aquatic, aerial and total 02 uptake per unit body weight (cc/kg/b) decreased by a fractional power of -0.1910, -0.2796 and -0.2302 respectively. The percentage of aquatic : aerial oxygen uptake in this fish were 60.62: 40.38. The details have been discussed in this paper.

FURADAN INDUCED HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE STOMACH OF MACROGNATHUS ACULEATUS (BLOCH)

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In the present work an attempt has been made to evaluate the toxic effect of Furadan (a carbamate pesticide) on histopathological and histochemical changes in the stomach of a fresh water mud eel, Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch) at sublethal concentrations (0.6, 0.80 and 0.90 ppm) for 10 and 20 days expsoures. Such treatment caused reduction in the columnar epithelial cells and mucosal folds became stumphy and widened; after 20 days intoxication mucosal fold and submucosa got damaged; tunica propria and musculature also got damaged. With the use of certain stains such as PAS, Bromophenol blue and Best Carmine etc. changes in the intensity of stains for carbohydrate, protein and glycogen test have been studied in control and intoxicated fishes. The details have been discussed in this paper.