We present the helminth species isolated from Bufo melanostictus Schneider collected from Rohilkhand, India alongwith their occurrence with respect to different weight groups (Group I: 25-50 gms, Group II: 51-100 gms, Group III: 75-100 gms). The nematode, Oxysomatium, Cestodes Oswaldocruzia and Proteocephalus and trematode were collected from the rectum and small intestine of the host. Oxysomatium (100%) was the most abundant species, followed by Proteocephalus (27.69%), Oswaldocruzia (15.38%) and trematode (0.76%) being the least prevalent species indicating that Oxysomatium was the most abundant species having the maximum density (28 par/host). In majority of the cases, the youngest hosts (25-50 gms) appeared to be most heavily infected. This contribution aims to document the helminth infracommunities in Bufo melanostictus with respect to the weight of the host.
Studies on quantity of Honey after rearing Apis indica on diffirent plants have been made in the present investigation. It is observed that the yield of honey is more when the bees are introduced only on Mango and Litchi plants in comparison to the control (t = 3.302, S.P > 0.01 and 5.369, H.S.P > 0.001 respectively) whereas from paddy and wheat plants lesser quantity of honey is collected in comparison to the control (t = 2.151, S.P. > 0.05 and 4.271, H.S.P. > 0.001 respectively). On the whole result showing the comparison of all five types of honey sources can be shown in following hirarchy, Litchi, Mango > control, Paddy> wheat plants (F = 21.8, S.P.) 0.01 and CD = 0.68).
The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence, abundance, seasonal variation and its intensity of infestation of helminth parasites in Channa punctatus Bloch, 1793 at some selected stations along the coast of river Ramganga from September 2015 to March 2017. Three helminth parasites Pallisentis punctati (Acanthocephalan), Clinostomum complanatum, Euclinostomum heterostomum (Trematode) and Trematode metacercaria were collected from abdominal cavity, liver and intestine of the infected host. A total of 100 hosts were found to be infected from 239 fishes sampled. 100 fishes were infected with Pallisentis punctati with an overall prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of 41.84%, 2.01 and 0.84 respectively, one (4.76%) fish was infected by Clinostomum complanatum, one with trematode metacercaria having mean intensity of 26.0 and a single fish (4.76%) was infected with E. heterostomum during summer. The observation showed significant highest parasitic communities during the summer season, moderate in monsoon and lowest in winter season. The aim of the present investigation is to provide information on seasonal dynamics and distribution of helminth parasites in a freshwater fish, Channa punctatus.
The lateral neurosecretory cells (LNSC) of pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus are observed in two groups, each of 2-4 cells and are arranged symmetrically on either side of Locus 3. The neurosecretory material of LNSC are stained light purple with PF and red with CHP. The neurosecretory product of LNSC are present in very poor amount in pre-copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, a heteropteran bug of economic importance.
In the present work an attempt has been made to find out the variations in biochemical composition and calorific values in an air breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) under chronic exposure of different pesticides and their combinations besides assessing whether or not the obtained data also can be used as an indicator for assessing water quality and its management.
The genus Krimi was established by Burt in 1944 with its type species K. chrysocolaptis,from Chrysocolaptis guttacristatus stricklandi,in Ceylon. Nine specimens of Cestode parasites were collected from the intestine of Gallus gallus domesticus. The present cestode have 55-60 number of strobilla; scolex large, rectangular in shape;rostellar sac large, extends up to the middle of the scolex; 18rostellarhooks; testes 25 to 30in numbers; cirrus pouch medium, oval; ovary is bilobed,each lobe with 7-8 acini;ootype small, oval; gravid proglottids large, broaderthan long.
Review of literature reveals that significant amount of works has been done on various aspects of benthic fauna at international spectrum. However, researches on benthic fauna at national spectrum have attracted but little attention of limnologists. Hence, a detailed qualitative and quantitative study of benthic fauna is desirable for water quality assessment and water resource management. In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify the specimens of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna up to lowest possible taxonomic level to examine its community composition and abundance in different types of fresh waterbodies in and around Ranchi. In the present study, altogether 55 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates, belonging to three groups, namely Oligochaeta, Insecta and Mollusca have been recorded from the four waterbodies. Of these, 52 taxa were found distributed to KR (Kanke Resevoir), 42 taxa to TP (Tiril Pond), 32 taxa to SR (Suvarnarekha River) and 27 taxa to RL (Ratu Lake). On the basis of abundance, the benthic macroinvetebrates were divided into four groups: Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, “Other Insects” and Mollusca. Oligochaeta was represented by 14 taxa, Chironomidae by 9 taxa, “Other Insect” by 22 taxa and Mollusca by 10 taxa. Oligochaetes and Chironomids were found to dominate the entire benthic macroinvertebrate community. The results are discussed in detail with respect to the findings of other workers from different parts of the world.
Exposure of Rita rita (Ham) to sublethal concentration of Kelthane E.G and Metacid brought decrease in total Protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in liver, kidney and intenstine. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.
A seven years (2008-2015) continuous investigation were conducted for environmental influence on the population and community dynamics of helminth parasites in aquatic vertebrate hosts from sub- humid region of Uttar Pradesh India. The aquatic vertebrate fauna, fresh water garfish Xenentodon cancila (Teleostomi: Belonidae) of the Gangetic riverine ecosystem was found to be infected by round worm, Sturdynema multiembryonata (Spiruroidea: Gnathostomatinae) and trematode, Cephalogonimus yamunii (Allocreodoidea: Cephalogoniminae) in hepatic and gastro-intestinal region respectively. The impact of extrinsic environmental factors (hydrobiological, seasonality and climatic) and host’s intrinsic factors (biology, sex, size and weight) were reflected during period of investigation. The highest infection prevalence appeared to be in late summer. Size, weight, and sex biased population and community dynamics of helminthes infections were well marked in the Gangetic riverine ecosystem. The individual impacts of hydrobiological parameters and their interactive interactions were calculated and substantiated by application of numerical biostatistical tools. It was found to be significant for dissolved oxygen, temperature and pollution parameters. Heavier, larger and older fishes were found to be comparatively more infected with enhanced number of helminth parasites in the present investigation.
Tulsi has been recognized for thousands of years to be one of India’s greatest health promoting herbs. It has benefits for hundreds of conditions with thousands of years of empirical experience and use.To report the alterations inflicted by Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) in thyroid and parathyroid gland, the histological studies with these glands were done after administration of a dose of 1 g/ kg body weight for 60 days. Follicles and Interfollicular spaces of thyroid gland and spherical chief cells with oval nuclei of parathyroid gland were similar in both experimental and control groups.The Ocimum sanctum leaves seemed to be non toxic on thyroid and parathyroid cells as we did not observe any pathological symptom in the histology of these vital organs. Thyroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum leaves may be assumed and could be suggested that Ocimum sanctum is safe for use, but studies are needed with further higher doses and duration to complete the safety profile of this plant.
The investigations have contributed to the analysis of correlations of DO, water temperature and alkalinity with infection prevalence and intensity of nematodes, Paracamallanus tridenti in Lutjanus malabaricus collected from Arabian Sea in Central West coast of India at Goa. The predictive hypothesis using AR1 model illustrated outbreak of nematodiasis in marine environment.
Present study was conducted to document the lcthyofaunal diversity of Bokaro district(Jharkhand) during Pre-monsoon season. Survey was made on Hill stream area, Reservoir and River area of Bokaro district (Jharkhand) during February to April 2017. Survey was made for eighteen freshwater fish species among which five different orders and ten families have been documented during Pre-monsoon period. Out of the total eighteen species of fishes, nine species belonging to family Cyprinidae and one species each from Notopteridae, Botiidae, Channidae, Gobilidae, Anabantidae, Claridae, Mastacembelidae and Bagridae family. Present study clearly shows that the Cyprinidae family of fishes are dominant fish species in aquatic body of Bokaro district. Out of eighteen species of fishes, one species of Anabantidae family is in under IUCN- VU category, where others are IUCN- LC category except one species of Botiidae family is in NBFGR-VU category. Further, study with more no. of sample and diverse population is needed for species level identification throughout the year.
Nicotine induced complete sterility in either sex of mutant Strain (Curled) of Drosophila melanogaster when applied topically check to newly emerged flies at a dose of 0.312 p1/100 ml food. However, the recovery of fertility was recorded as the treatment days increased. In cross combinations, where either male or female or both were treated, egg laying was delayed by 10-18 days as compared to control. Recovery of fertility was faster in F, generation. Also, the flies treated at emergence, remained sterile for longer period than the flies treated at maturity. % egg hatch and corrected % sterility in the flies treated at maturity for the first subsequent three weeks and % egg hatch of successive egg batches in the flies treated on emergence showed that the F2 generation was more effective than F, generation.
Prawn is a valuable aquatic food resource, high in protein and commands good export markets. Farming of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii is receiving greater attention. Its farming is yet to catch up in the country mainly because of non-availability of seed. In the hatcheries, management of water quality is of primary consideration and degradation of water quality is detrimental to their survival. As marine water is a limiting factor in inland areas, we have to depend on re-circulatory system to maintain the water quality parameters. So the results of the present study clearly show that potassium aluminum sulfate can be effectively used for purification of water in the re-circulatory system of freshwater prawn hatchery to maintain the optimum water quality parameters like pH, Salinity, Dissolved organic matter etc. forsuccessful prawn seed production.
Pesticides are common environmental contaminants incorporating in the food chain due to their indiscriminate use and persistence. The Bioaccumulation of lindane (organochlorine pesticide) is a major threat to human health. We are looking for phytochemicals which may enhance its metabolism and excretion. The ameliorating effect of curcumin (Phenolic phytochemical obtained from turmeric) against lindane induced hematoxicity was studied in wistar rats. Lindane (30mg/kg bw) exposure significantly (P<0.001) decreases the level of Hb, RBC, lymphocytes, mixed cells (eosinophils, basophils, monocytes), PCV and ESR, significantly (P<0.001) increases WBC and neutrophils as compared to control. Pre and post-treatment with curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) ameliorated lindane induced hematotoxicity. However, curcumin co-administered with lindane did not show any ameliorating effect. Lindane hematotoxicity persisted after 14 days of metabolism indicating its persistence.
Textile silk dyeing waste is one of the major sources of hazardous pollutants. Untreated textile dye effluents released from various dyeing industries are often associated with several hepatic diseases and damages both functionally and structurally. In the present work an attempt has been made to find out the impacts of long term exposure of untreated silk dye effluent of small scale cottage industry at Bhagalpur on hepatic tissues of Swiss albino mice, (Mus musculus). The mice were treated orally intragastrically and toxicity was observed at different concentration of silk dye effluent i.e. 25%, 50 %, 75 % and 100% in different time response (15m, 30m, 45th and 60th days). The assimilation of dyeing effluent in body system was supported by biochemical variables. The liver section showed progressive damage which increased with the duration of exposure period than increase in effluent concentration. Hepatic histo-pathological study revealed that female mice suffer from severe hepatic injury like hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, granulation and dense particles. Hyalinisation was major character identified in the peripheral region of hepatocytes. The findings indicated that silk dye effluent cause a marked alteration in hepatic profile and their effect became more risky at higher dose, because it induces retention of water inside hepatocytes result in odema. The present investigation may be a valuable step in the toxicity assessment of silk dye effluent in Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).
An investigation on species composition, abundance and habitat association of small mammals in Damot Mountain Forest Priorities Protected Area, Wolayita Zone was carried out from August 2011 to February, 2012 during wet and dry seasons. Trapping was conducted in five habitats types, bushland, Erica forest, grassland, farmland and bamboo with mixed forest. Forty nine live-traps were used to capture the small mammals. A total of 421 individual animals were captured in 2940 live-trap nights. The small mammal species trapped were Lophuromys flavopunctatus (37.5%), Stenocephalemys albipes (24.2%), Pelomys harringtoni (14.3%), Arvicanthis abyssinicus, (12.6%), Arvicanthis niloticus (7.6%), Mus mohamet (1.7%), Crocidura flavescens (1.4%) and Lemniscomys zebra (0.71%). The distribution and abundance of small mammals showed variation between habitats. The highest mean trap success was recorded from bushland (25.2%) while the least was from Erica forest (6.4%). Abundance of small mammals was higher during the wet season than dry season.