Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), an anionic surfactant, is the most widely used active component in most of the laundry and cleansing (L& C) compounds. Improper and untreated discharges of domestic and industrial efuents, which largely contain adequate amount of LAS, frequently pollute both lentic and lotic aquatic habitats and adversely affect their ecological prole. Both aquatic ora and fauna are concomitantly exposed to xenobiotic stress on account of surfactants which have registered a spurt both in their production and consumption, globally. Fishes are the worst sufferer of detergent pollution as they lie on top of trophic level in an aquatic food chain. Blood values of shes are sensitive indicators of aquatic pollution as is evident by haematological anomalies in the sh Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to sub-lethal fractions, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 of 96 h LC of LAS along with its 96 h LC .In present studies, haemoglobin (Hb) and absolute 50 50 erythrocyte count (AEC)were recorded with a decreasing while total leukocyte count (TLC) with an increasing trend in a concentration dependent manner in all exposure groups as compared to unexposed control group. The alterations in the above haematological parameters of the sh can, thus, be used as sensitive indicators of contamination of aquatic regimes on account of LAS.
Most of the agricultural Commodities and their products/by products are susceptible to fungal spoilage in different pre-and post harvest conditions. A detail survey of whole sale depots was made to assess the natural contamination of the dietary items for incidence of toxic fungi, in particular, Aspergillus group, well documented for elaborating Ochratoxins. The study was made during Jan. 2012- Dec. 2012. Ochratoxin A. is one of the most abundant food contaminating mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus ochraceous (Petzinger et.al.; 2006) and also by Pernicillum verrucosum. Ochratoxin A has been shown to be nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, mainly carcinogenic and teratogenic in all experimental animals tested so far according to WHO (1990). In this pretext attempts were made to collect and assess the staple human dietary items for natural incidence of toxic fungi open for sale in whole sale depots. The study provides indirect evidences for many of the human ailments the etiology of which is still obscure and prolonged exposure leads to cancer .
A microsporidum (M-Cfl) was isolated from Catopsilia florella caught from mulberry and vegetable fields in BBAU campus, Lucknow area. The spores were 4.09±0.03×2.19±0.02 μm in size and ovo-cylindrical in shape. In contrast, the spores of Nosema bombycis were oval in shape and were 3.32±0.02 μm in length, 1.97±0.01 in width. The bivoltine breed, CSR2×CSR4 of mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. was selected to the study the infectivity of M-Cfl microsporidian on silkworm larval and cocoon characters and it was found that M-Cfl spore is infective to silkworm but the intensity of infection was lower as compared to that of Nosema bombycis, the known pebrine causing agent of silkworm Bombyx mori L.
An effective attempt was made to study the conservation status of the fishes naturally occurring in perennial pond of Khanwari village of Kaushambi district of Uttar Pradesh. The study was conducted during all the 12 months of year 2015. During exploration, a total of 27 species of fishes belonging to 19 genera, 15 families and 8 orders were identified. As per latest version of IUCN Red List, out of 27 species of fishes identified, 2 species come under NT (near threatened), 18 under LC (least concern) and 7 species are NE (not evaluated) so far.
Collembola, an important group of soil Microarthropods are usually associated with moist habitats, However, some species show an adaptation to ecosystems subject to periodic desiccation. This study examined population structure of collembola communities in its native natural site at Firozabad Soil apterygotes were dominated by collembolans belonging to the families, Isotomidae and Entomobryoidae. The highest density was of Entomobryoidae found during rainy season followed by Isotomidae. However the least population was that of Poduridae and Tomoceridae. The present study establishes a direct effect of high atmospheric temperature and low soil moisture on the population density of these microarthropods and this population is also affected by the soil management practices. These soil microarthropods especially collembola are of great significance for the health of the soil and its fertility. The details have been discussed in this paper.
The axons of median nerosecretory cells of locus 1 form the median neurosectory pathway and nervi corporis cardiaci interni (NCCI). The NCCI of two sides decussate each other in the anterior dorsal median part of the protocerebrum, comes out from the brain and enter the aorta wall. The median neurosecretory pathways can be differentiated into two parts viz. the very short prechiasmatic and the long postchiasmatic portions in pre – copulating female Spilostethus pandurus, a heteropteran insect of economic importance.
Studies on the toxic effect of Mardo (an organophophate pesticide) on bimodal oxygen uptake in a fresh water teleostean fish, Mystus vittatus (Bloch) have been made. The LC values of Mardo were 50 calculated to be 0.490, 0.420, 0.330 and 0.270 mg/l respectively for 24 h, 48h, 72h and 96 hours exposure at o 30.0±1.0 C. Control group of fishees (35.0±1.5g) secures 51.47±1.12 cc/kg/h from gills and 2.270±0.22 (from skin through aerial route i.e total 54.167±1.25cc/kg/h. Mardo intoxication (at sub lethal concertrations of 0.18, 0.20 and 0.215 mg/l) in mystus vittatus caused significant decrease in aquatic respiration through gills and total oxygen uptake but significant increase in aerial 0 uptake (through skin) as compared to 2 control. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.
The present investigation deals with taxonomic studies of mammalian tapeworm of genus Avitellina, viz. A. sakriensisn. sp. collected from the host Capra hircus at Sakri (M.S.) India. The present worm comes closer to all the known species to the genus Avitellina in general topography of organ but differs due to scolex medium, squarish; suckers large, oval; neck long; mature segment 21 to 22 times broader than long; testes oval, large, 4 – 8 in number, outer column 0 – 1, inner column 2-3 testes; cirrus pouch large, oval; vas deferens, medium; ovary medium, single, oval; vagina dorsal to cirrus pouch; vitelline gland absent; genital pore irregularly alternate and gravid segments show one pyriform par uterine organ, containing eggs.
Studies on the effect of Mardo (newly introduced orgarophosphate pesticide) on changes in haematological indices were made in a fresh water fish, Mystus vittatus (Bloch). The mean value of RBC counts, mean erythrocyte diameter, Hb content, packed cell volume (PCV), MCH, MCHC and total 3 leucocyte counts in control group of fishes were – 1.913±0.002 (million cells/mm of blood), 37.65±0.125 2 µm , 8.105±0.045 g/100ml, 13.7±0.344%, 45.605±0.093 pg, 56.405±0.004% and 24.0±0.127 3 thousands/mm . The treatment of sub lethal dosages (0.15, 0.18, 0.20 and 0.215 mg/l) of Mardo for 96 hr brought statistically significant decrease in most of the above noted indices as compared to control. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.
Rattus rattus (n=65) were autopsied and their intestine examined for the presence of parasites. The intestine of 4 rats revealed whitish cestodes frequently attached to the intestinal wall and were identified as Hymenolepis nana (the dwarf tapeworm (length 22 to 43 mm; width 0.95-1.48 mm). Scolex anterior, small, globular, (diameter 0.31 mm), cup-like, tetrad (four suckers) and retractile rostellum (row of 20–30 hooks). Proglottid contains a single set of reproductive organs, genital pores unilateral. Testes three, ovary sub median, lobed (0.19-0.42 mm by 0.21-0.39 mm). Gravid proglottids (length 0.22–0.34 mm, width 0.81–0.94 mm) filled with numerous eggs. Vitellaria compact and small. Eggs slightly oval (average 53.71 X 42.29 micrometers).
The effect of Melatonin (MEL) and p-chlorophenyl-alanine (PCPA), a β-adrenergic antagonist on immune and reproductive status was studied during reproductively active phase of Indian Passeriformes Finch, Lonchura punctulata. MEL treatment to these birds showed significant increase in the immune parameters such as spleen weight, blastogenic response of splenocytes, total leukocyte count and lymphocyte count, whereas PCPA treatment showed significant decrease in all these immune parameters. On the other hand the treatment of MEL and PCPA together to the birds showed an increase in immune parameters as compared with control group of birds. Histological observations of the spleen substantiate the data of spleen weight analysis as MEL treatment to the bird increased the splenocytes density in spleen, whereas PCPA treatment to the bird showed depletion of splenocytes in spleen. The results of the present study suggest immune-stimulatory and anti-gonadal effect of the neuro-hormone MEL in this avian species.
Studies on the effect of L-thyroxine and testosterone propionate on changes in proximate composition (water, protein, lipid, carbohydrate + ash) in liver muscle, brain, kidney and ovary were made in a fresh water air breathing snake headed murrel fish, Channa striatus (Bloch). The treatment of L-thyroxine (T4) and testosterone proprionate (T.P.) brought an increase in water content in liver and kidney but decrease in protein contents in liver, muscle kidney and gonad. The treatment of T4 and T.P. brought slight increase in lipid content of liver, kidney and brain while decrease in lipid content was clearly marked out in gonad. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.
Studies on the effect of few pesticides (namely – Kelthane, Dithane and Metacid on changes in water, protein, lipid content and calorific values in various tissues (namely muscle, ovary, kidney and liver) were made in a fresh water air breathing climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). The treatment of all the above noted pesticides brought increase in water content but on the other hand such treatment caused significant decrease in protein, lipid content and calorific values in different tissues in this fish. The significance of this study as bio indicator and in water quality management has been discussed.
In the present work an attempt has been made to study the morphology and histology of thyroid gland in two species of teleosts namely -Clarias batrachus. Linn (a facultative air breathing fish) and Macrognathus aculeatum. Bloch (the spiny mud eel obligate water breather) with a view to correlate their (thyroid) structure with the breathing behaviour of the fishes, if any. The details have been discussed in this paper.
The effect of Monocrotophos (Monohit) at different time intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours was studied on the toxicity (LC values), opercular beating and behavioural responses in a fresh water fish, 50 Anabas testudineus (Bloch). The response of the fish towards toxicity was grossly dependent on concentration and length of exposure. The mean value of opercular beating decreased with increasing concentration of monocrotophos. The reasons for such changes have been discussed in this paper.
In the present work, the effect of Merit Alpha (an organochlorine pesticide) at sublethal dose (0.0025 mg/l) for one month period on histopathological changes in ovary of the fish, Channa gachua (Ham.) has been studied. This pesticide produced deleterious changes in the ovarian structure and its functional status. The details have been discussed in this paper.
Infections due to protozoa of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries: Visceral Leishmaniasis commonly called Kala-azar which is caused by an intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani. This disease may be fatal when left untreated. In the present study, in vitro anti- leishmanial activity of Ethyl acetate, Methanolic, Benzene and Chloroform extracts of Swertia chirata have been evaluated. Among those extracts Methanolic extracts of Swertia chirata shows effective antileishmanial activity against promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. Amarogentin present in Swertia chirata which may be responsible for inhibiting the growth of parasite. It was found that LC =150 50 µg/ml i.e. 50% inhibition at 100 µg/ml and LC =200µg/ml for complete inhibition is required to inhibit the 90 growth of Leishmania donovani..
Rhesus macaques are exceptionally adapted to coexisting with human and thrive near human settlement in both urban and agricultural areas. There are numerous populations of non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) living in and around the Raj-Gardh fort Dumraon, Buxar but none have been documented. A survey of Raj-Gardh Garrison monkey M. mulatta was carried out and studied its ecology and behavior during January 2013 to December 2014 in Dumraon. Macaque position in the group was observed based on the rank and “central male subgroup” together with two or three oldest males that was observed most dominant. Troop also co-dominant, along with females, their infants and juveniles. The home ranges of this species M. mulatta were observed between .01 to 2.5 km2 in day. Feeding activity was found mostly during morning & evening time and resting between 10 AM to 3 PM when temperature was high. M. mulatta is sexually dimorphic with males and females both have represented separate hierarchies. The rhesus groups were characterized by female philopartry with residue natal group but male dispersal. Mating observed mostly in the month of November to January and infants handled by close female relatives and protected by adult males. In the first few days the infant was carried ventrally by the mother. Loss of natural habitat and increased conflict between human and non-human primates were found to be the major threat for the Raj-Gardh Macaques of the region.
Jharia coalfield is one of the most important coalfields in India. The extraction of this specific coalfield is to obtain prime cocking coal which is the great source of energy. Opencast mining is one of the essential and vital mining method which involves various activities due to which the ecological changes and environmental degradation occur. When opencast mining is done, the soils found on upper most layer get severely damaged due to blasting and drilling etc. The opencast mining causes harmful effects on the insects living in the soils. As the nutrient quality and microbial activities of the soil system get disturbed hence the bio-diversity of soil insects of concerning mining areas gets disturbed badly. The living conditions of many insects get changed. This paper presents the result of the study carried out in mining areas i.e. Lodna and Bastacola of Jharia coalfield. The selected soil insects were collected from five different sites of Lodna and Bastacola for study in mining areas and from Baliapur and Sindri for the study of non-mining areas. The obtained results are very useful to understand the mining impact on selected soil insects.
The changes of reproductive cycle in higher vertebrate mammalian rodent give a reasonable index of its ovarian activity with hormonal synthesis of estrogens and progesterone. In the present work an attempt has been made to study the assessment of different concentration of silk dye effluent on reproductive physiology of female Albino mice, Mus musculus. The reproductive toxicity was observed in 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations. The silk dye effluent cause significant effect on estrous cycle, copora lutea, implantation site, gestation length, litter count, percent survival of litter count and percent pre Implamentational loss. The control mice exhibited regular estrous cycle of 4-5 days. All the parameters except estrus cycle and gestation length reduced with increase in effluent concentration. When female mice treated with different concentration cause a significant decrease in the number of estrus cycle. The numbers of corpora lutea were significantly reduced from 14-5, implementation site 11-2, litter count 11-1.2 and percent survival of litter count from 95.605% to 32.166 % while the percent pre implantational loss were increased from 10 to 36.744 and gestation lengths increased with the increase in effluent concentration from 19.8 – 21.1 days. The finding indicated that the reproductive fertility and ability severely affected due to the different concentrations of silk dye effluent. The detail report of the investigation is presented in this paper.