FISH FAUNA OF TEHSIL MENDHAR, DISTRICT- POONCH, JAMMU REGION, J & K STATE, WITH A NEW RECORD OF BOTIA BIRDI, OMPOK PABDA AND GLYPTOTHORAX PUNJABIENSIS FROM POONCH DISTRICT

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Fish caught (Schistura sp)

Fish survey in lentic and lotic water bodies of Tehsil Mendhar, District Poonch has revealed the presence of 21 fish species belonging to 04 orders, 07 families and 16 genera. There is a dominance of Cypriniformes (17 species) followed by Siluriformes (2 species) and Mastacembelliformes and Perciformes (one species each). Among the enlisted fishes Botia birdi, Ompok pabda and Glyptothorax punjabiensis are the new records for Poonch District. Maximum monthly perennial contribution, sometimes 100%, in fish catches is shared by Schizothorax richardsonii. Fishing methods commonly employed include rod and hook, cast net, wall gill net, hand net, pot trap, hand picking, baskets, buckets, poisoning (bleaching powder, extract of Euphorbia royalaena, seed powder of Xanthoxylum alatum), electric shocking, light traps and dynamiting and grenading. Decline in fish diversity and conservation measures in the area have also been discussed. 

PHOSALONE INDUCED CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES IN CHANNA GACHUA (HAM.)

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Studies or the effect of phosalone (an organophosphate) on changes in haematological indices were made in a snake headed murrel fish, Channa gachua (Ham.). The mean values of Hb content, RBC count, Haemalocrit values, M.C.H.C. and Oxygen capacity in control group of fishes were 15.2+0.18 (g%), 2.86+0.11 (million cells/mm of blood), 23.8+1.18, 63.8 (%) and 19.0 (Vol%) respectively. Treatment of acute sub lethal dosage (8.0 ppm) of phosalone brought statistically significant decrease in most of the blood parameters except M.C.H.C. in experimental animals. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.

A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ACARICIDAL PROPERTY OF LEMON GRASS OIL, DELTAMETHRIN, CYPERMETHRIN AND AMITRAZ ON DOG TICKS; RHIPICEPHALUS SPP

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Paralytic effect of lemon grass oil, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin and Amitraz on dog ticks within different hours of exposure

 Pet animals especially dogs contribute a lot to the human society as they guard our properties and many of us also have emotional attachment with them. Diseases due to tick infestation Rhipicephalus spp. has become one of the greatest reason for their bad health. Development of resistance in ticks against drugs, high cost of available drugs and hazards associated with the use of chemical acaricides have created interest to evaluate the effects of herbal products like lemon grass oil and to compare its effectiveness with deltamethrin, cypermethrin and amitraz. Assessment of acaricidal property was made using standard concentrations (0.5ml/100ml of water) of the lemon grass oil, deltamethrin, cypermethrin and amitraz following adult emulsion test (AET). It has been found that lemon grass oil has better acaricidal property (83.3% to 94.4%) even than the chemical acaricides (6.6% to 53.3%). It was observed that about 25 to 28 out of 30 ticks were paralyzed within 1hr to 24hrs of lemon grass oil treatment with comparison to 9 to 16 in chemical acaricides.

EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AND BEHAVIOURAL RESPOSNSES IN MYSTUS VITTATUS (BLOCH) EXPOSED TO LINDANE

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The effect of an organochlorine pesticide, lindane at different time intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs was studied on the toxicity (LC Values), opecular beatings and behavioural response in a fresh water fish, 50 Mystus vittatus (Bloch). The response of the fish towards toxicity was grossly dependent on concentration and length of exposure. The mean values of opercular beatings decreased with increasing concentration of lindane. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper. 

STUDIES ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WATER OF KOSI RIVER NEAR KOPARIA, SAHARSA (BIHAR)

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The physico-chemical parameters of Kosi river near Koparia, Saharsa, Bihar have been studied monthly during July 2014 to June 2015 from two sites. The results revealed that there was significant seasonal variation in some physico-chemical parameters and most of the parameters are in the normal range indicating better quality water resources

EFFECT OF HERBOCLIN AND PHOSALONE ON HAEMATOBIOCHEMICAL PROFILES IN CHANNA GACHUA (HAM.)

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Studies on the effect of sublethal concentration of Herboclin (weedicide) and Phosalone (an organo phosphate pesticide) were made to evaluate the changes in some haemato-biochemical parameters in an air breathing teleostean fish, Channa gachua (Ham.) In control group of fishes the values of serum protein, blood glucose and serum cholesterol were respectively 4.89 + 0.43, 69.83 + 2.15 and 144.85 + 2.18 mg/100 ml. The exposure of fishes to sublethal concentration of both Herboclin and phosalone caused significant decrease serum concentration of serum protein while such exposures caused significant decrease in serum blood glucose and serum cholesterol. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY OF KALI KOSI RIVER NEAR KATIHAR, BIHAR

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19 species belonging to Protozoa, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Copepoda and Rotifera were identified from Kali Kosi river water near Katihar of Bihar. The abundance of Zooplankton and their systematic account are discussed

A COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AGROCHEMICALS ON RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY OF CHANNA PUNCTATUS (BLOCH)

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The effect of two agrochemicals namely-ammonium sulphate and urea on changes in total oxygen consumption has been studied in a fresh water teleostean fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Total oxygen consumption in this fish was 86.54 + 1.4 cc/kg/h. Treatment of sublethal concentration of both urea & ammonium sulphate for 96hrs exposure caused significant decrease in oxygen consumption as compared to control. The effect was more pronounced in ammonium sulphate as compared to urea exposure. The reason for such changes has been discussed in this paper.

BIO-EFFICACY OF SOME BOTANICALS AGAINST THE MUSTARD APHIS, LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI (KALT.)

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Bio- efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Datura afsutosa, Argemone maxicana and Nicotiana tabacum were tested and evaluated against the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). A. indica and N. tabacum exhibited better and satisfactory pesticidal efficacy at 0.25 to 0.5% concentrations. All these botanicals proved its efficacy in producing physiological stress to pests.

STUDIES ON CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT, LOCALITY AND SEX IN TWO SPECIES OF CHANNA

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Studies on different blood parameters were made in relation to body weight, locality and sex in Channa punctatus (Bloch.) and C. gachua (Ham). The RBC count, Hb content, WBC count and PVC increases with the increase in body weight by a fractional power of 0.16, 0.16, 0.30 and 0.57 (regression coefficient) respectively in C. punctatus. The correlation coefficients were high, ranging from 0.93 to 1.0. No statistical relationship could be obtained between the body weight and different blood parameters in C. gachua. Significant difference was found in different blood parameters in C. punctatus collected from two different localities. The blood parameters in males and female in the two species did not differ significantly.

STUDIES ON PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY OF MACROPHYTES OF A WETLAND

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Present works deal with the morphometrics, water and soil chemistry and productivity of Kawar wetland with special reference to nutrient status. Studies were done during the period 2014-2015. Kawar Lake is situated in the district of Begsarai (Bihar). It lies about 22 km. North-West from the district, O O headquarter of Begsarai town. It is situated at 25 30′ North latitude and 87 40′ East longitude.

The average monthly variation in biomass of macrophytes was found to vary between 36.3 dry 3 3 g/m in Nov, 2014 and 50.00 dry g/m in Jan.2014 during first year for the littoral zone while during second 3 3 year it was found to very between 17.30 dry g/m in Sept. 2015 and 52.40 dry g/m in Mar. 2015 for the same site. The average monthly variation in biomass of macrophytes at limnetic zone during first year was found 3 3 to vary between 17.20 dry g/m in Nov. 2015 and 33.30 dry g/m in Jan. 2014 while during second year it was 3 3 found to vary between 6.40 dry g/m in Sept. 2014 and 40.20 dry g/m in March. 2015

DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF AQUATIC INSECTS OF FRESHWATER PONDS VIZ. PAMPOO TALAB AND BEKARBANDHTALAB OF DHANBAD DISTRICT IN

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Composition of insect orders of BekarBandh Freshwater Pond during a period of one year

The diversity of insect fauna of two fresh water ponds of Dhanbad was represented by 60 species classified under 15 families and 9 orders.Among the insects collected from the freshwater pond,the order Coleoptera was diverse in number of genera(22).The order Ephemeroptera is represented in BekarbandhTalab by the families Baetidae and Caenidae, which are considered as an indicator of water quality.of the 15metrices selected,taxa richness ,composition measures, tolerance and intolerance and Functional groups were also found out for both two study stations.In the present study, the percentage of Ephemeroptera ,Plecoptera and Trichoptera taxa richness and diversity remained high in station 1,Bekarbandh Talab and reduced drastically in station 2. PampooTalab.Pollution tolerant taxa such as Chironomidae,Tabanidae, Culicidae and Anophilinae were abundant in station 2 i.e PampooTalab. The result of the study reveals great diversity of aquatic insects in freshwater bodies of Dhanbad and suggest the possibility of using insects effectively for biomonitoring programmes.

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF HORMONES AND PHARMACOLOGICAL DRUGS ON BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND CALORIFIC VALUES IN SOME TISSUE IN ANABAS TESTUDINEUS (BLOCH)

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Studies on the effect of hormones (L-thyroxine and hydrocortisone) and a pharmacological drug (Durabolin) on changes in water %, protein% and calorific values (K.cal/g) in muscle, ovary, kidney and liver were made in a fresh water air breathing climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). The treatment of Lthyroxine brings about increase in water content (%) and decrease in both protein content and calorific values in above noted tissues while the treatment of both hydrocortisone and Durabolin bring about decrease in water content and increase in protein content and calorific values as compared to control. The reason for such changes have been discussed in this paper.

STUDIES ON CHANGES IN BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CALORIFIC VALUES IN A FRESH WATER MAJOR CARP, LABEO CALBASU (HAM.) IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT AND SEX

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Studies on changes in biochemical composition and calorific value (Kcal g) in relation to body weight and sex have been made in a fresh water Indian major carp, Labeo calbasu (Ham.). There is high statistical correlations between body weight (g) Vs. water, lipid, protein, ash content and calorific values in this fish. The males have lower protein content and calorific values as compared to females but the difference was statistically nonsignificant.

AMOEBIASIS IN RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION OF GAYA DISTRICT IN BIHAR

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A cross section study of 5 regions (Central, eastern, western, northern and southern) of Gaya district in Bihar was made by examination of 50 faecal samples from each region for the presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis. The incidence varies from 9 to 14 % in different areas of the district, the highest (13.6 %) in central region (Gaya town and surrounding), followed by the southern (11.2 %) region (Bodh Gaya and suburbs). In other areas, it is 9-10 %. Examination of faecal films in normal saline or after staining with Dobell’s iodine or formol ether concentration technique does not reveal any significant difference in cyst counts. Statistical analysis by Z-test of difference proportion or by chi-square test does not indicate any siggnificant difference in the incidence of amoebiasis in different regions. The infected persons are carrier and a patient source of infection of their family member and other people in the area. This is attributed to unhygienic habits, lack of sanitation, ingestion of contaminated food and drink especially through food handlers, fruit and cane juice vendors who use polluted water. In rural areas, lack of latrines in homes, defecation in open field and use of contaminated water from wells and ponds are the chief source of the spread of infection.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE TWO FRESH WATER BODIES OF DHANBAD AND ITS IMPACT ON AQUATIC INSECTS HABITAT SELECTION

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The Physico-chemical analysis of water is very important for public health studies .Physico-chemical parameters refer to the water quality of fresh water. In the present study two ponds were selected namely Bekarbandh pond and Pampoo pond. Both the ponds are used by local peoples for bathing and even washing clothes .Limnological features of two ponds were taken into account in the present study.The key water quality parameters for fresh water bodies are temperature,oxygen,pH,alkalinity,hardness etc. Due to the several factors within the pond ,these parameters fluctuate daily depending upon photosynthesis of aquatic plants (like algae). Both ponds showed an oligotrophic nature with the presence of poor nutrients and low vegetation.

EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON FREE AMINO ACID LEVELS IN FRESH WATER FISH, CIRRHINUS MRIGALA (HAM.)

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 The water pollution is a major problem in modern life. Almost all the heavy metals are toxic at higher concentrations and some are lethal even at a very low concentration. Among the heavy metals, arsenic forms a significant contribution to pesticides and industrial enffluents released into different water bodies. Pesticides used in excessive amount have caused potential health hazards not only to human but also to all of aquatic lives. It produces a variety of toxic effects in aquatic life including fishes. The freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala treated with two sublethal concentration of arsenic, have revealed a significant increase in the amino acid level in liver and tissues throughout the period of 28th days exposure. The present investigation has been designed to study the effect of total free amino acids in the selected tissues of C. mrigala. The effect might be due to intensive proteolysis in the respective tissues.

COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF ALIMENTARY CANAL IN RELATION TO FEEDING HABIT OF INDIAN RASBORINE FISHES

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Figure 18

The fishes of subfamily Rasborinae of family Cyprinidae are small sized individuals with a streamlined body and have been adjusted as a group of great economic importance from aesthetic, medical, fisheries and game points of view. In the present study, the structure and morphometrics of alimentary canal of Rasborine fishes (11 species belonging to 8 genera) are described in relation to their food and feeding habits. The general pattern of alimentary canal was found to be similar but according to their feeding habit some morphological features was showing dissimilarity. The pattern and length of alimentary canal indicated inter and intraspecific variations. The stomach content analysis revealed that Amblypharyngodon mola , Aspidoparia morar, Barilius bendelisis, Esomus danricus mainly depended on vegetable matter whereas Barilius barila Hamilton, Barilius barna Hamilton, Barilius vagra Hamilton, Branchydanio rerio , Danio devario Hamilton, Raiamas bola, Rasbora (Rasbora ) daniconius daniconius depended on animal matter. It has been observed that the rasborine fishes are predominantly larvivorous i.e. feeding on insect larvae except for Raiamas which is a carnivore.

STANDARDIZATION OF BUTANOL CONCENTRATION AS SEDATIVE FOR EFFECTIVE ANAESTHETIZATION OF COMMON CARP, CYPRINUS CARPIO (LINN.) SEEDS

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Mean time taken by the fish for sedation and recovery in different size groups

Anaesthetization of the animals is the prerequisite for many research activities. Normally the animals take more time for anaesthetization if the concentration of the sedative is low. But higher dosage of sedatives will take more time for the animal to recovery from the sedation and even may lead to mortality also. Hence in the present study it was tried to optimize the dosage of butanol concentration for the effective anaesthetization of different size groups Common carp Cyprinus carpio fish seeds. From the results of this study it is very clear that butanol can be used as a sedative for anaesthetization of Common carp fish seeds. 5 ml of butanol per liter of water is found to be optimum and effective for anaesthetization of Common carp fish seeds weighing in the range of 1-3, 4-6gm and 7 ml of butanol per liter of water for the size group 6-8 gm. There was no mortality of fish seeds during or even after the experiment due to anaesthetization.