A cross section study of 5 regions (Central, eastern, western, northern and southern) of Gaya district in Bihar was made by examination of 50 faecal samples from each region for the presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis. The incidence varies from 9 to 14 % in different areas of the district, the highest (13.6 %) in central region (Gaya town and surrounding), followed by the southern (11.2 %) region (Bodh Gaya and suburbs). In other areas, it is 9-10 %. Examination of faecal films in normal saline or after staining with Dobell’s iodine or formol ether concentration technique does not reveal any significant difference in cyst counts. Statistical analysis by Z-test of difference proportion or by chi-square test does not indicate any siggnificant difference in the incidence of amoebiasis in different regions. The infected persons are carrier and a patient source of infection of their family member and other people in the area. This is attributed to unhygienic habits, lack of sanitation, ingestion of contaminated food and drink especially through food handlers, fruit and cane juice vendors who use polluted water. In rural areas, lack of latrines in homes, defecation in open field and use of contaminated water from wells and ponds are the chief source of the spread of infection.